小学生充值打赏 钱还能要回来吗?

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自2018年9月建院以来,北京互联网法院共受理76件涉未成年人网络纠纷案,其中57起为充值打赏类案件,占比75%。这一数据来自北京互联网法院近日发布的《未成年人网络司法保护情况报告》(以下简称《报告》)。《报告》显示,这些案件中绝大多数未成年人存在逃避家庭监管、规避平台认证措施的情形。未成年人除了是网络人格权侵权的受害者外,有时也会成为侵权行为的加害者。

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打赏者多为小学生

据《报告》,76起案件的当事人中,年龄最小的受侵害者仅为5岁,8至16岁的当事人最多,占比86.8%。在已审结的63件案件中,以调解和撤诉方式结案的占比74.6%,以判决方式结案的占比22.2%。从案件的具体纠纷内容看,涉未成年人网络纠纷主要集中于充值打赏、网络购物、人格权侵权等几类。

《报告》显示,充值打赏类案件又包含游戏充值、直播打赏等类型,案件原告多主张未成年人充值行为不发生效力,并要求返还充值款。57起案件中,游戏充值案件的平均标的额为8.4万余元,直播打赏案件的平均标的额为6.9万余元,涉案金额最高的为61万元。未成年人多从简单接触网络游戏、网络直播开始,进而通过充值、打赏获得更好的娱乐体验,后发展为大额充值打赏,个别未成年人还会购买“游戏代练”服务。

“有的未成年人以网课学习、正常娱乐为由欺骗家长获得电子设备,有的未成年人甚至在家长休息时间偷用家长的设备进行娱乐消费。”北京互联网法院副院长姜颖说。

记者注意到,在北京互联网法院发布的典型案例中,充值打赏的未成年人基本都是小学生,他们用父母的手机注册账号,充值游戏、打赏主播、看付费漫画等。

如小学生小刘在父母不知情的情况下,用父亲的手机号在被告运营的直播平台注册账号,8天时间充值4万多元,用于在直播平台上购买虚拟礼物、打赏。“东窗事发”后,小刘的监护人以小刘的名义起诉,要求法院确认原告小刘在被告处的充值行为无效并判令被告返还充值款。法院审理认为,原告系未成年人,其所进行的高额充值打赏行为与其身份、年龄和经济状况不相适应。最终,经法院主持,当事人达成和解,被告同意返还原告的充值款项。

“为了规避平台的防沉迷措施和消费限制,未成年人往往用监护人或其他成年人的账号注册登录,有的为防止被发现,还会在消费后删除验证短信提示信息。有的还通过网络购物平台购买成年人账号,购买代充值服务。”姜颖说,未成年人绕过监管及认证措施,导致其使用网络娱乐消费时间远超过国家规定未成年人合理用网时间,还会引发网络沉迷。

一些平台放任不管

北京互联网法院指出,涉未成年人案件涉及网络游戏、网络直播、网络视频、网络社交、电子商务等多类型平台,案件反映出部分相关市场主体在未成年人保护的技术措施、身份验证、信息内容建设、投诉处理机制等方面仍有待完善。

如在身份验证方面,部分网络服务提供者的身份核验方式较为单一,缺乏收集个人信息之外的动态核验等方式。有些网络服务提供者在可能获知用户为未成年人后,仍对其充值行为予以放任,也有一些网络服务提供者在电子商务平台提供游戏账号购买、代充值等服务,事实上便利了未成年人绕过网络游戏的防沉迷措施,电子商务平台对此监管不力。

《报告》显示,近年来,涉及未成年人的网络欺凌及个人信息、隐私等人格权侵权的现象日益引发关注。在北京互联网法院审理的案件中,未成年人既有上述侵权行为的受害者,也有侵权行为的加害者。有的未成年人之间因校内矛盾在网络上相互攻击,在短视频平台、社交平台等曝光他人肖像或对他人实施语言暴力;有的未成年人父母因子女与同学之间的矛盾在班级群中以过激言论批评其他同学。

记者了解到,受“饭圈文化”的影响,部分未成年人热衷于打榜控评、反黑互掐等非理性追星行为,网络言论失范问题较为突出。如在某明星名誉权受侵害案中,就有未成年人被告使用明显过激的言论辱骂原告,对其进行人身攻击。在涉未成年人人格权侵权案件中,反映出未成年人、成年人均存在网络素养不足、未成年人保护意识不足的问题。

“在涉未成年人案件中,多数当事人表现出较强的调解意愿,息诉解纷成效明显。”姜颖说,北京互联网法院建立未成年人案件优先调解机制,强化全过程调解,当事人在法院主持下调解或自行和解的比例达74.6%。

多方发力强化保护

《中国互联网络发展状况统计报告》显示,截至2020年年底,我国网民规模已近10亿,中国未成年人网民达1.83亿,未成年人互联网普及率达94.9%。

如何强化未成年人网络保护?姜颖建议多方发力,家长、学校、相关市场主体以及相关部门应切实担负起职责。

家长应提升自身网络素养,指导未成年人正确使用上网保护软件、智能终端产品等,管理好个人电子设备及支付账户,切实履行监护职责,创造良好的网络使用家庭环境;

相关市场主体要严格落实法律法规要求,主动完善技术措施、身份验证、内容管理、投诉处理等方面的不足,积极提供适应未成年人身心健康发展规律和特点的网络产品及服务;

学校要加强对未成年人的网络素养教育,加强与家长的沟通,妥善处理校园纠纷;

相关部门应进一步强化职能履行,针对网络素养制定相关教学指标,明确未成年人上网保护软件、专门供未成年人使用的智能终端产品的相关技术标准或者要求,尽快确定可能影响未成年人身心健康的信息的具体种类、范围、判断标准和提示办法等。

据了解,北京互联网法院高度重视未成年人保护工作,坚持未成年人审判专业化发展方向,于2021年5月挂牌成立全国首个互联网少年法庭,集中审理涉未成年人网络纠纷。

目前,北京互联网法院已制定出台《关于加强未成年人网络司法保护工作的意见》,多方位提出发展规划,全面加强未成年人网络保护水平。围绕未成年人网络司法保护,创建“首互未来”品牌,打造“首互未来”未成年人虚拟谈话室,用柔和的场景布置,缓解当事人接受法庭询问时可能产生的紧张、焦虑情绪。同时,通过依法裁判、提出司法建议、建立法治副校长人才库、发布家庭教育指导令等多种方式,多管齐下引导全社会各主体提升未成年人网络保护意识和水平。

Most of the appreciators are pupils.

According to the report, among the parties in 76 cases, the youngest victim was only 5 years old, and the largest number of parties aged 8 to 16 accounted for 86.8%. Of the 63 cases concluded, 74.6% were settled by mediation and withdrawal, and 22.2% by judgment. From the specific dispute content of the case, the network disputes involving minors mainly focus on recharge reward, online shopping, personality right infringement and so on.

The "report" shows that recharge reward cases also include game recharge, live broadcast reward and other types, and the plaintiffs in the case mostly advocate that the recharge behavior of minors is not effective and demand the return of recharge money. Among the 57 cases, the average target amount of game recharge cases is more than 84000 yuan, the average amount of live reward cases is more than 69000 yuan, and the highest amount of money involved is 610000 yuan. Most minors start from simple contact with online games and live streaming, and then get a better entertainment experience through recharge and reward, and then develop into a large recharge reward, and individual minors will also purchase "game practice" services.

"some minors deceive parents into obtaining electronic devices on the grounds of online lessons and normal entertainment, and some minors even steal parents' equipment for entertainment consumption during parents' rest time." Said Jiang Ying, vice president of the Beijing Internet Court.

The reporter noticed that in the typical cases released by the Beijing Internet Court, the minors who were recharged were basically primary school students, who used their parents' mobile phones to register accounts, recharge games, reward anchors, read paid comics, and so on.

For example, primary school student Xiao Liu, without his parents' knowledge, used his father's mobile phone number to register an account on the live broadcast platform operated by the defendant and recharged more than 40,000 yuan in eight days to buy virtual gifts and reward on the live broadcast platform. After the "East window incident", Xiao Liu's guardian sued in the name of Xiao Liu, asking the court to confirm that the recharge behavior of the plaintiff Xiao Liu at the defendant was invalid and ordered the defendant to return the recharge. The court held that the plaintiff was a minor and that his high recharge was not commensurate with his identity, age and financial situation. Finally, after being presided over by the court, the parties reached a settlement and the defendant agreed to return the recharge of the plaintiff.

"in order to avoid the anti-addiction measures and consumption restrictions of the platform, minors often register and log in with the accounts of guardians or other adults, and some delete verification text messages after consumption to prevent them from being discovered. Some also buy adult accounts and recharge services through online shopping platforms. " Jiang Ying said that minors bypass regulatory and certification measures, causing them to spend far more time using online entertainment than the state requires minors to use the Internet reasonably, and it will also lead to Internet addiction.

Some platforms let it go.

The Beijing Internet Court pointed out that cases involving minors involve online games, live streaming, online video, online social networking, e-commerce and other platforms, and the case reflects that some relevant market subjects still need to improve the technical measures for the protection of minors, identity verification, information content construction, complaint handling mechanism, and so on.

For example, in the aspect of identity authentication, the identity verification mode of some network service providers is relatively single, and there is a lack of dynamic verification other than collecting personal information. Some Internet service providers still give laissez-faire to their recharging behavior after they may know that users are minors, while some online service providers provide game account purchase, recharging and other services on e-commerce platform. in fact, it is convenient for minors to bypass the anti-addictive measures of online games, and the e-commerce platform is ineffective in supervising this.

According to the report, in recent years, cyber bullying involving minors and infringement of personal information, privacy and other personality rights have attracted increasing attention. In the cases tried by the Internet Court in Beijing, minors have both victims and perpetrators of the above-mentioned torts. Some minors attack each other on the Internet because of contradictions in school, exposing portraits of others or committing verbal violence to others on short video platforms and social platforms. Some parents of minors criticize other students with radical remarks in the class group because of the contradictions between their children and classmates.

The reporter learned that under the influence of the "rice circle culture", some minors are keen on irrational star-chasing behaviors such as ranking, controlling and evaluating, and opposing each other, and the problem of anomie of online speech is more prominent. For example, in the case of the infringement of the reputation rights of a star, there are minor defendants who use obviously extreme remarks to abuse the plaintiff and attack them personally. In the infringement cases of minors' personality rights, it reflects that minors and adults have the problems of lack of network literacy and lack of awareness of protection.

"in cases involving minors, most of the parties showed a strong willingness to mediate and achieved remarkable results in settling disputes." Jiang Ying said that the Beijing Internet Court has established a priority mediation mechanism for juvenile cases and strengthened the whole process of mediation, with the proportion of parties mediating or settling on their own under the auspices of the court reaching 74.6%.

Multi-party efforts to strengthen protection

According to the Statistical report on the Development of the Internet in China, by the end of 2020, the number of Internet users in China has reached nearly 1 billion, the number of Internet users among minors in China has reached 183 million, and the Internet penetration rate of minors has reached 94.9%.

How to strengthen the network protection of minors? Jiang Ying suggested that parents, schools, relevant market players and relevant departments should earnestly shoulder their responsibilities.

Parents should improve their network literacy, guide minors to correctly use Internet protection software and intelligent terminal products, manage personal electronic devices and payment accounts, earnestly perform guardianship duties, and create a good family environment for network use.

Relevant market entities should strictly implement the requirements of laws and regulations, actively improve the deficiencies in technical measures, identity verification, content management and complaint handling, and actively provide network products and services that adapt to the laws and characteristics of minors' physical and mental health development.

Schools should strengthen network literacy education for minors, strengthen communication with parents, and properly handle campus disputes.

The relevant departments should further strengthen the performance of their functions, formulate relevant teaching indicators for network literacy, and clarify the relevant technical standards or requirements of minors' online protection software and intelligent terminal products specially for minors' use. determine as soon as possible the specific types, scope, judgment standards and hints of information that may affect the physical and mental health of minors.

It is understood that the Beijing Internet Court attaches great importance to the protection of minors, adheres to the direction of professional development of juvenile trials, and set up the country's first Internet juvenile court in May 2021 to focus on hearing network disputes involving minors.

At present, the Beijing Internet Court has formulated and issued the "opinions on strengthening the Internet Judicial Protection of minors", put forward development plans in various directions, and comprehensively strengthen the level of network protection of minors. Around the network judicial protection of minors, create a brand of "first mutual future", create a "first mutual future" virtual conversation room for minors, and use a soft scene to ease the tension and anxiety that may arise when the parties are questioned by the court. At the same time, through a variety of ways, such as judging according to law, putting forward judicial suggestions, establishing a talent bank of vice principals under the rule of law, and issuing family education guidance orders, we should adopt a multi-pronged approach to guide the main bodies of the whole society to enhance the awareness and level of minors' network protection.

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版权声明:法治日报 发表于 2022-06-02 09:23。
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