本报记者 樊 巍 张常悦 尹野平
Fan Wei & nbsp; & nbsp; Zhang Changyue & nbsp; & nbsp; Yin Yeping
Li Taisheng, director of internal medicine in Peking Union Medical College Hospital, told the Global Times on the 30th that monkeypox was a cross-continental epidemic with various potential reasons. In addition to outbreaks in specific populations due to individual characteristics and behavior patterns, and increased infection caused by virus variation, it may also be due to decreased immunity to monkeypox virus after smallpox vaccination was stopped. Li Taisheng said that with the cessation of the global smallpox vaccination program, the number of people who have not been vaccinated against smallpox has gradually expanded over the past 40 years, and the specific immunity of people who have been vaccinated against smallpox has gradually decreased over time. As a result, the population susceptible to monkeypox continues to expand.
At present, no cases of monkeypox have been reported in China, and monkeypox virus has not been detected in wild animals or entry quarantine. Prior to this, Tan Wenjie, a researcher at the Institute for virus Disease Prevention and Control of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and chief scientist of the national key research and development project "Mechanism of Interspecies infection and Transmission of Zoonotic virus Diseases", said in an interview with the media that China has not reported any cases of monkeypox, nor has it reported the discovery of the virus in animal hosts, so the current focus is on external prevention and import.
Tan Wenjie said that after the monkeypox outbreak in the United States in 2003, in order to prevent the entry of the epidemic, the former General Administration of quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine issued a notice to strictly quarantine personnel from the epidemic areas and take necessary prevention and control measures for patients with suspected monkeypox. for example, rodents and primates that may spread monkeypox virus from epidemic areas are prohibited from entering the country. Strict quarantine inspection, sanitary supervision and necessary deratization shall be carried out on goods from epidemic areas. Therefore, it is unlikely that monkeypox will be introduced by animals carried by incoming passengers. However, port quarantine personnel should not relax and strictly quarantine personnel, animals, vehicles, containers, goods and parcels from monkeypox epidemic areas.
Li Taisheng believes that with the resumption of global travel and trade, the possibility of finding imported cases in China cannot be ruled out, so it is necessary to strengthen border quarantine and establish a standardized surveillance system. "Monkeypox has a high risk of transmission in close contact and high-risk groups, but the risk of transmission in the general population is low, and the possibility of a global pandemic is extremely low."
On May 30, the General Administration of Customs announced that recently, many countries around the world have reported monkeypox cases one after another, and the national customs port health and quarantine will continue to do a good job of "common prevention of multiple diseases" to prevent the superimposition of the epidemic. We will strictly implement health and quarantine measures for entry personnel, such as health declaration, strengthen entry carrying, delivery quarantine, and rodent quarantine, strengthen multi-department joint prevention and control, and strictly prevent the risk of epidemic import.
According to a reporter from the Global Times, at present, China has established a variety of genetic detection techniques for early diagnosis of monkeypox, which can quickly realize the screening of monkeypox virus. Tan Wenjie said that, for example, fluorescent quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction detection technology can make early screening and diagnosis of pox virus within 3 hours, combined with a new generation of sequencing methods, it can not only identify whether the sample is monkeypox virus or other pox virus (such as smallpox virus, cowpox virus, etc.) within 24 hours, but also molecular trace the source and transmission chain of monkeypox virus. In addition, Tan Wenjie also revealed that the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has formulated the "Technical Plan for Emergency handling of Monkeypox epidemic," stocked monkeypox molecular detection reagents, and conducted training for monkeypox nucleic acid PCR testing for disease control professionals in various provinces and cities.
The monkeypox virus nucleic acid detection kit (fluorescent PCR method) developed by China Biotechnology Corporation, which is engaged in the research and development of diagnostic reagents, has recently obtained the qualification of EU CE access. The company official said in an interview with the Global Times that the product will be sold in 27 EU member states and countries and regions that recognize EU CE qualifications. At present, the product has received urgent order inquiries from many countries, and nearly 100000 reagents will be sent to more than 50 countries and regions around the world. At the same time, the product has also launched registration applications in several monkeypox endemic areas.
Shengxiang Biology, another testing kit research and development company, told the Global Times that at present, Spain, the United Arab Emirates, South Africa and other countries have orders for the monkeypox virus nucleic acid detection kit developed by the company, and some countries have definite orders, which are mainly used for emergency reserves.
In the face of monkeypox virus which is very similar to smallpox virus in antigenicity, biology, morphology and structure, are the vaccines we used to deal with smallpox virus still effective? Li Taisheng said that previous studies have shown that smallpox vaccination has about 85% protective effect on monkeypox. In 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration also approved the third generation of highly attenuated smallpox vaccine for adult smallpox and monkeypox prevention. Tan Wenjie also believes that the similarity between smallpox virus and monkeypox virus can form cross-immunity, so for people at high risk of infection or people in areas where the epidemic is imported, emergency vaccination can be carried out in a timely manner after assessing the risk. "China's long-term emergency reserve of smallpox vaccine can provide millions of emergency vaccinations at any time."
Feng Duojia, president of the China Vaccine Industry Association, said in response to a reporter from the Global Times that it is not clear whether China will develop a monkeypox vaccine, but if necessary, it will not be too difficult from a technical point of view. "the relevant technology was available decades ago. Now it will only be more advanced. The need for research and development depends on the specific circumstances. "
Jiang Chunlai, a professor at the School of Life Sciences at Jilin University, told the Global Times that if necessary, China is more likely to restart a vaccine against smallpox virus than to develop a vaccine against monkeypox virus. Because it takes a long time and great uncertainty to develop a vaccine against monkeypox virus, it is more feasible to choose a technologically mature smallpox vaccine to prevent monkeypox. Jiang Chunlai said that at present, the public need not worry too much about the monkeypox epidemic, ordinary people gather less, wear masks, wash their hands frequently, avoid contact with wild animals and avoid eating raw meat, which can effectively reduce the risk of infection. ,