大脑怎么说“哎呀”?神经科学家揭开绩效监控背后的机制

科技 6个月前 cnBeta
113 0 0
【腾讯云】多款云产品1折起,买云服务器送免费机器,最长免费续3个月
来自洛杉矶西达斯西奈医学中心的神经科学家已经解开了绩效监测背后的机制,绩效监测使人们有能力从成功和失败中学习。研究人员发现了来自大脑额叶的一组神经元的信号如何同时赋予人类学习新任务的灵活性--及发展高度具体技能的专注力。

Human_Brain.png

资料图

他们的发现提供了对绩效监控的基本理解,这是一种用于管理日常生活的执行功能。该研究于5月6日发表在《科学》上,由雪松-西奈的神经科学跟医学中心和神经外科系的研究人员展开。

据了解,这项研究的关键发现是,大脑在许多不同的情况下使用同一组神经元进行性能反馈--无论一个人是第一次尝试新的活动还是努力完善一项特定的技能。

神经外科、神经病学和生物医学教授、神经科学和医学中心主任、神经科学理事会主席和该研究的资深作者Ueli Rutishauser博士说道:“人脑的部分魔力在于它是如此灵活。我们设计了我们的研究以破译大脑如何能同时泛化和专门化,这两者对于帮助我们追求一个目标至关重要。”

绩效监测是一种内部信号,一种自我产生的反馈,从而让人知道他们犯了一个错误。一个例子是,一个人意识到他们开车经过了一个他们应该转弯的十字路口。另一个例子是,一个人在谈话中说了一些话,话一出口就意识到他们刚才说的话是不恰当的。

这项研究的论文第一作者Zhongzheng Fu说道:“说‘哦,拍’的时刻、说‘哎呀!’的时刻是性能监测的启动。”

这些信号通过将信息传递给大脑中调节情绪、记忆、计划和解决问题的区域来帮助提高未来尝试的表现。绩效监测还通过提示任务中遇到的冲突或困难的程度来帮助大脑调整其注意力。

“因此,‘哎呀!’的时刻可能会促使某人在下次跟朋友聊天或计划在下班回家的路上在商店停留时更加注意,”Fu说道。

为了看到行动中的表现监测,调查人员记录了研究参与者的内侧额叶皮层中单个神经元的活动。参与者是癫痫患者,作为治疗的一部分,他们的大脑中植入了电极,这样可以帮助研究人员定位参与者们的发作焦点。具体来说,这些患者的电极被植入了内侧额叶皮层,这是一个已知在性能监测中发挥核心作用的大脑区域。

该小组要求参与者进行两项常用的认知测试。

在Stroop任务中,将看跟颜色命名对立起来。参与者看到一种颜色的书面名称,如红色,但它印在不同颜色的墨水上,如绿色,然后其并被要求说出墨水的颜色而不是书面文字。

“这在大脑中产生了冲突,”Rutishauser表示,“你有几十年的阅读训练,但现在你的目标是抑制这种阅读习惯并说出这个词所使用的墨水的颜色。”

而在另一项涉及识别数字的任务--多源干扰任务(MSIT)中,参与者在屏幕上看到三个数字,其中两个相同,另一个则是唯一的--如1-2-2。受试者的任务是按下跟独特数字相关的按钮,在这种情况下是“1”,因为“2”这个数字出现了两次。

Fu说道:“这两项任务是对自我监控在涉及不同认知领域的不同场景中如何参与的一个有力测试。”

结构化的反应

当受试者执行这些任务时,调查人员注意到两种不同类型的神经元在工作。在犯错后,“错误”神经元强烈发射,而“冲突”神经元则对受试者刚刚执行的任务的难度作出反应。

研究人员指出,当观察这个脑区的神经元的活动时,他们惊讶地发现,大多数神经元只有在一个决定或一个行动完成后才变得活跃。这表明这一脑区在事后评估决定方面发挥着作用,而不是做出决定。

绩效监测有两种:一般领域和特定领域。一般领域的绩效监测告诉人们什么地方出错了并且可以检测到任何类型的任务中的错误--无论某人是在驾驶汽车、在社交场合导航还是第一次玩Wordle。这使他们能在很少的指导下完成新的任务,这是机器无法做到的。

特定领域性能监测则告诉犯错误的人出了什么问题,并检测具体的错误--他们错过了一个转弯、说了一些不恰当的话或在拼图中选错了字母。这是人们完善个人技能的一种方式。

令人惊讶的是,在内侧额叶皮层中,发出领域一般信息和领域特定信息信号的神经元相互交融。

Rutishauser称,为了理解这些信号是如何被大脑的其他区域解释的,把这些神经元想象成一个管弦乐队的音乐家是有帮助的。“如果他们都是随机演奏,听众--在这种情况下,接收信号的大脑区域--只是听到一组杂乱无章的音符。但如果他们演奏的是一首编排好的作品,即使有这么多乐器或表演监测神经元同时演奏,也有可能清楚地听到各种旋律和和声。”

不过Ruishauser指出,这种信号传递过多或过少都会引起问题。

据了解,过度活跃的性能监测可以表现为强迫症,导致一个人强迫性地检查并不存在的错误。另一个极端是精神分裂症,在这种情况下,性能监测可能不活跃,以至于一个人没有察觉到错误或其言行的不适当性。

Rutishauser表示:“我们相信,我们所获得的机械知识对于完善这些破坏性精神疾病的治疗至关重要。”

Visit:

JD.com 's main venue on June 18, 2022-pre-order will begin on the evening of May 23.

Data map

Their findings provide a basic understanding of performance monitoring, an executive function for managing daily life. The study, published May 6 in Science, was carried out by researchers at the Cedar-Sinai Neuroscience and Medical Center and the Department of Neurosurgery.

It is understood that the key finding of this study is that the brain uses the same group of neurons for performance feedback in many different situations-whether a person is trying a new activity for the first time or trying to improve a particular skill.

"part of the magic of the human brain is that it is so flexible," said Dr. Ueli Rutishauser, professor of neurosurgery, neurology and biomedical medicine, director of the Neuroscience and Medical Center, president of the Neuroscience Council and senior author of the study. We designed our research to decipher how the brain can generalize and specialize at the same time, both of which are essential to help us pursue a goal. "

Performance monitoring is an internal signal, a self-generated feedback, to let people know that they have made a mistake. One example is when a person realizes that they are driving through an intersection where they should turn. Another example is that a person said something in a conversation and realized that what they had just said was inappropriate.

Zhongzheng Fu, lead author of the study, said: "say the moment of'Oh, shoot 'and say' oops!' The moment is the start of performance monitoring. "

These signals help improve the performance of future attempts by sending information to areas of the brain that regulate mood, memory, planning, and problem solving. Performance monitoring also helps the brain adjust its attention by indicating the degree of conflict or difficulty encountered in the task.

"so, 'oops!' The moment may prompt someone to pay more attention to the next time they chat with friends or plan to stop at the store on their way home from work, "Fu said."

To see the performance monitoring during the action, the investigators recorded the activity of individual neurons in the medial frontal cortex of the study participants. The participants were patients with epilepsy, and as part of the treatment, electrodes were implanted into their brains to help researchers locate the participants' focus of seizures. Specifically, the patients' electrodes were implanted in the medial frontal cortex, an area of the brain known to play a central role in performance monitoring.

The group asked participants to take two commonly used cognitive tests.

In the Stroop task, set the look against the color naming. Participants saw a written name for a color, such as red, but it was printed on different colors of ink, such as green, and was then asked to say the color of the ink instead of written text.

"it creates a conflict in the brain," says Rutishauser. "you have decades of reading training, but now your goal is to suppress the reading habit and tell the color of the ink used to say the word."

In another task that involves identifying numbers, the multiple source interference task (MSIT), participants see three digits on the screen, two of which are the same and the other unique-such as 1-2-2. The subject's task was to press a button associated with a unique number, which in this case was "1" because the number "2" appeared twice.

"these two tasks are a powerful test of how self-monitoring participates in different scenarios involving different cognitive areas," Fu said.

Structured response

When the subjects performed these tasks, the investigators noticed that two different types of neurons were working. After making a mistake, the "error" neurons fired strongly, while the "conflict" neurons responded to the difficulty of the task the subjects had just performed.

The researchers pointed out that when they looked at the activity of neurons in this area of the brain, they were surprised to find that most neurons became active only after a decision or action was completed. This suggests that this brain region plays a role in evaluating decisions afterwards rather than making decisions.

There are two kinds of performance monitoring: general areas and specific areas. Performance monitoring in general areas tells people what went wrong and can detect errors in any type of task-whether someone is driving a car, navigating in a social situation, or playing Wordle for the first time. This enables them to accomplish new tasks with little guidance, which machines cannot do.

Domain-specific performance monitoring tells the person who made the mistake what went wrong and detected the specific error-they missed a turn, said something inappropriate, or chose the wrong letter in the puzzle. This is a way for people to improve their personal skills.

Surprisingly, in the medial frontal cortex, neurons that emit domain-general and domain-specific information signals mingle with each other.

To understand how these signals are interpreted by other parts of the brain, it is helpful to think of these neurons as musicians in an orchestra, Rutishauser said. "if they all play at random, the audience-in this case, the area of the brain that receives the signal-just hears a messy set of notes. But if they play an arranged piece, even if there are so many instruments or performance monitoring neurons playing at the same time, it is possible to hear all kinds of melodies and harmonies clearly. "

But Ruishauser points out that too much or too little of this kind of signal transmission can cause problems.

It is understood that overactive performance monitoring can be characterized by obsessive-compulsive disorder, leading to errors that do not exist in a person's obsessive-compulsive examination. The other extreme is schizophrenia, in which case performance monitoring may be inactive so that a person is not aware of an error or the inappropriateness of his words and deeds.

"We believe that the mechanical knowledge we have acquired is critical to improving the treatment of these destructive mental disorders," Rutishauser said.

【腾讯云】多款云产品1折起,买云服务器送免费机器,最长免费续3个月
版权声明:cnBeta 发表于 2022-05-24 16:00。
转载请注明:大脑怎么说“哎呀”?神经科学家揭开绩效监控背后的机制 | ColaBug

相关文章

colabug网址导航在线提交网站

暂无评论

-游客点评-
等待评论...