听着恶心却可能逆转衰老 移植年轻者粪便抗衰,你接受吗?

科技 7个月前 药明康德
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随着年龄增长,你是否有过以下经历,照镜子的时候偶尔发现眼角出现了细微的皱纹;原本两三天就愈合的小伤口现在一星期才好;大脑好像越来越容易健忘,视力也感觉不如从前。没错,这就是我们和衰老拉开战斗的第一幕,大多数人可能会选择迅速购买各种抗衰护肤品,增强功能的保健品和补剂来抵抗岁月的攻击。

但未来可能还会有一种听起来恶心,但效果也许不错的抗衰方式诞生:移植年轻者的粪便微生物。你敢不敢尝试呢?

这种借助年轻个体抵抗衰老的想法在许多动物实验中已经得到了验证,比如给果蝇喂食幼龄动物匀浆可以增加它们的寿命;又或者在非洲鳉鱼中移植年轻个体的微生物可以同样改善年老鳉鱼的行为衰退,延长其寿命。

听着恶心却可能逆转衰老 移植年轻者粪便抗衰,你接受吗?

最近,英国东安格利亚大学和Quadram生物科学研究所就再次在小鼠身上证明这一点是可行的,即 移植年轻小鼠的粪便微生物 。虽然过程听着不太友好,但效果是真的不错。

年老小鼠接受了年轻小鼠的微生物后,许多与肠道、眼睛、大脑相关的衰老标志物都得到了逆转。

据研究人员发表于《微生物组》(Microbiome)杂志的论文指出,肠道中的微生物群与个体的健康密切相关,尤其是对维护个体肠道屏障和免疫系统功能中有重要作用。随着衰老,微生物群落结构和功能发生变化,会引起炎症等免疫异常,以及代谢功能紊乱。

除了肠道,受这种炎症影响最深的器官还包括大脑。这是因为肠脑之间有着复杂的神经交流,肠道微生物出问题,大脑也更容易受影响产生神经炎症和功能衰退。

听着恶心却可能逆转衰老 移植年轻者粪便抗衰,你接受吗?

▲移植年轻个体的粪便微生物,小鼠多器官层面的衰老标志物都得到逆转;而反过来移植年老个体的粪便微生物,年轻个体的许多指标迅速变差(图片来源:参考资料[2])

研究选取了年轻小鼠和年老小鼠分别互相递送对方的微生物。以年轻移植老年组为例,研究者首先需要获取年轻小鼠的粪便,之后制成粪便浆液,鉴于年老小鼠不会主动喝“粪水”,研究者都是 过灌胃的方式将粪便制剂送到小鼠体内

接受移植方都提前服用了大量抗生素,对肠道原有微生物来了一次大清洗,保证移植的微生物群会占据主体。

虽然过程有点难受,但效果不久就出现了。

首先接受粪便移植的老年小鼠,大脑中的慢性炎症水平下降了,而原本过度激活的小胶质细胞也变得安分下来,这 或许对缓解神经炎症造成的病变有积极影响

此外, 年老小鼠视网膜的功能也会变得更好 ,与视觉色素相关的蛋白水平逐渐恢复到了与年轻小鼠一样的水平。根据视网膜样本的分析,年老小鼠的多种促炎因子减少了,而功能性视觉蛋白RPE65的表达会显著增长。

而影响更直接的当属肠道功能了, 移植年轻小鼠的微生物可以让小鼠的肠道上皮屏障完整性更好,减少一些炎症性和破坏性的分子渗透到血液当中 。这样能直接让整个血液中各种促炎细胞因子水平下降,由于血管网络遍布全身,可以说年老小鼠整体的衰老状态都得到了逆转。

根据研究,不同年龄小鼠中的微生物可能在分解饮食过程中产生了不同的代谢产物,从而影响了细胞功能。这种类似的机制很可能同样存在于人体。

其实,现在已经有一些研究开始设计口服式的粪便微生物胶囊,帮助改善肥胖和代谢综合征患者的胰岛素敏感性。未来,我们或许通过服下类似的年轻者粪便提取物,就能一定程度上重返青春了。

听起来还有些小激动呢!

But in the future, there may be another way to fight aging that sounds disgusting, but it may work well:移植年轻者的粪便微生物. Do you dare to try?

This idea of anti-aging with the help of young individuals has been tested in many animal experiments, such as feeding fruit flies with young animal homogenate can increase their lifespan; or transplanting young microbes into African mackerel can also improve the behavioral decline and prolong the lifespan of old mackerel.

Recently, the University of East Anglia and the Quadram Institute of Biosciences have once again proved this to be feasible in mice, that is, Transplant fecal microorganisms of young mice . Although the process sounds unfriendly, the effect is really good.

When older mice received microbes from young mice, many of the aging markers associated with the intestines, eyes and brain were reversed.

According to the researchers' paper published in the journal Microbiome, the microbiota in the intestinal tract is closely related to individual health, especially in maintaining the intestinal barrier and immune system function. With agingChanges in the structure and function of microbial community will cause immune abnormalities such as inflammation and metabolic dysfunction.

In addition to the intestines, the organs most affected by this inflammation includeBrain. This is due to complex neural communication between the gut and brain, problems with intestinal microbes, and the brain is more likely to be affected by neuroinflammation and functional decline.

When the fecal microorganisms of young individuals were transplanted, the aging markers of multiple organs in mice were reversed, while in turn, many indexes of young individuals deteriorated rapidly after transplanting fecal microorganisms of older individuals (Photo Source: reference [2])

The study selected young and old mice to deliver each other's microbes. Taking the young and old transplant group as an example, the researchers first need to obtain the feces of young mice, and then make them into fecal serum. in view of the fact that old mice do not take the initiative to drink "fecal water", the researchers all do. PassThe fecal preparation was delivered to the mouse by intragastric administration. .

The recipients all took a large amount of antibiotics in advance and made a big cleaning of the original microbes in the intestinal tract to ensure that the transplanted microflora would occupy the main body.

虽然过程有点难受,但效果不久就出现了.

In the elderly mice that first received fecal transplantation, the level of chronic inflammation in the brain decreased, and the previously overactivated microglia became calm. It may have a positive effect on alleviating the pathological changes caused by neuroinflammation. .

In addition The function of the retina of the old mice will also become better. The level of protein associated with visual pigment gradually returned to the same level as that of young mice. According to the analysis of retinal samples, a variety of pro-inflammatory factors decreased in older mice, while the expression of functional visual protein RPE65 increased significantly.

And the more direct impact is the intestinal function. Transplanting microorganisms from young mice can improve the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier and reduce the infiltration of inflammatory and destructive molecules into the bloodstream. . This can directly reduce the level of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the whole blood. because the vascular network is spread all over the body, it can be said that the aging state of the elderly mice as a whole has been reversed.

According to the study, microbes in mice of different ages may produce different metabolites in the process of breaking down diet, thus affecting cell function. This similar mechanism is likely to exist in the human body.

In fact, some studies have begun to design oral fecal microbial capsules to help improve insulin sensitivity in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. In the future, we may be able to return to youth to some extent by taking similar fecal extracts from young people.

That sounds a little exciting!

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