“看得见,摸不着”的NFT数字藏品版权如何保护?

科技 5个月前 新华网
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NFT数字藏品发行日渐火热,也暴露出侵权等问题。“看得见,摸不着”的NFT数字藏品,版权如何得到有效保护?日前,由中国版权协会在京主办的“NFT数字藏品著作权问题研讨会”上,专家表示,NFT数字藏品走红背后,版权合规问题亟待规范。

新华社北京7月8日电 题:“看得见,摸不着”的NFT数字藏品版权如何保护?

新华社记者史竞男

什么是NFT?NFT(Non-Fungible Token,非同质化通证)能够记录特定客体的初始发行者、发行日期以及未来每一次流转信息。每一件数字音乐、数字图像等数字作品均具有被标记的唯一“身份”,NFT就是验明其真实身份的“钥匙”。

中国版权协会理事长阎晓宏指出,随着互联网数字技术的发展,对版权保护也提出了新的要求。如何通过新技术有效进行NFT数字藏品的版权确权,成为摆在相关发行平台面前亟待解决的问题。“我们要抓住机会,紧跟时代,站在数字技术和网络数字发展的前沿来关注技术进步对社会、对版权将产生的影响,要秉持这一宗旨来探讨NFT数字藏品中涉及的版权问题。”

华东政法大学教授王迁认为,作品上传到交易平台,“铸造”成NFT数字作品供大家浏览,这个行为既是复制又是信息网络传播。对于未经许可制造和提供作品在线浏览而言,法院可以判决停止侵权,其中包括销毁服务器上的侵权复制件,以保障著作权人的利益。如果NFT作品因侵权被法院判决销毁,最终购买者就不可能再转手,此时“铸造者”要对最终购买者承担违约责任。

上海交通大学凯原法学院院长孔祥俊表示,NFT数字作品的交易平台具有双重属性,一方面是网络服务提供者,另一方面是电子商务平台经营者。对于数字作品在电子商务平台传播,在法律适用上除了适用著作权法以外,电子商务法也可以适用。

“数字作品无论是在自身交易平台进行交易,还是第三方交易服务平台进行交易,都应纳入网络出版的监管范围,要在现有法律框架内合法经营。”华东政法大学知识产权学院院长丛立先认为,发行平台要承担起技术安全、网络信息安全和金融安全的法律责任。

最高人民法院民事审判第三庭法官秦元明指出,电子证据是法定的证据类型之一,人民法院对待区块链的取证、存证采取的是积极开放的态度,鼓励当事人能够采取这样新的技术去举证,提高举证能力。通过区块链等方式保存固定和提交证据,有利于解决举证难问题。

北京中版链科技有限公司创新研发中心负责人田新文表示,区块链技术在版权领域具有非常丰富的应用场景,通过区块链技术可以有效解决版权确权问题,提高确权维权的效率,极大降低版权保护和版权交易的成本。

今年4月20日,杭州互联网法院公开开庭审理原告奇策公司与被告某科技公司侵害作品信息网络传播权纠纷一案,并当庭宣判:被告立即删除经营的“元宇宙”平台上发布的“胖虎打疫苗”NFT作品,同时赔偿奇策公司经济损失及合理费用合计4000元。

“看得见,摸不着”的NFT数字藏品版权如何保护?

涉案作品“胖虎打疫苗” (杭州互联网法院供图)

杭州互联网法院互联网审判二庭副庭长叶胜男以此案为例,从司法审判角度针对NFT数字藏品发行中的版权问题进行了分析。她表示,被告作为NFT数字作品交易服务平台,未尽到审查注意义务,存在主观过错,其行为已构成帮助侵权。NFT数字作品交易平台应承担更高的审查注意义务。不仅需要履行一般网络服务提供者的责任,还应当建立一套知识产权审查机制,对平台上交易的NFT作品的著作权作初步审查,否则应承担相应的法律责任。

专家建议通过区块链技术进行版权存证,实现初步确权,并出台完善从使用、开发、维权、调解到交易的全产业链的技术解决方案。

“数字技术有助于让馆藏文物走向千家万户,未来博物馆必然离不开数字技术。”中国国家博物馆经营开发部副主任朱晓云认为,数字文创藏品通过数字技术的应用可以更好满足受众的体验感和获得感。数字藏品市场的长远健康发展,有赖于版权方、设计方、平台方三方权利义务的平衡,希望建立统一标准来引导市场健康发展。

Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, July 8th, by wire Question: how to protect the copyright of the NFT digital collection of "visible, untouchable"?

Xinhua News Agency reporter Shi Jingnan

What is NFT? NFT (Non-Fungible Token, non-homogenization pass) can record the initial issuer, release date and future transfer information of a particular object. Every piece of digital music, digital images and other digital works have the only "identity" that is marked, and NFT is the "key" to verify its true identity.

Yan Xiaohong, chairman of the China copyright Association, pointed out that with the development of Internet digital technology, new requirements have been put forward for copyright protection. How to determine the copyright of NFT digital collection effectively through new technology has become an urgent problem to be solved in front of the relevant distribution platform. "We should seize the opportunity, keep up with the times, stand at the forefront of digital technology and network digital development to pay attention to the impact of technological progress on society and copyright, and adhere to this purpose to explore the copyright issues involved in the NFT digital collection."

Wang Qian, a professor at East China University of political Science and Law, believes that the works are uploaded to the trading platform and "cast" into NFT digital works for everyone to browse, which is both replication and information network dissemination. For unauthorized manufacturing and providing online browsing of works, the court may decide to stop the infringement, including the destruction of infringing copies on the server, in order to protect the interests of the copyright owner. If the NFT work is destroyed by the court for infringement, it is impossible for the ultimate buyer to change hands, and the "foundry" will be liable for breach of contract to the final purchaser.

Kong Xiangjun, dean of Kaiyuan Law School at Shanghai Jiaotong University, said that the trading platform for NFT digital works has dual attributes, which are network service providers and e-commerce platform operators on the one hand. For the dissemination of digital works on e-commerce platform, in addition to the application of copyright law, e-commerce law can also be applied.

"whether digital works are traded on their own trading platforms or on third-party trading service platforms, they should be brought into the regulatory scope of online publishing and operate legally within the existing legal framework." Cong Lixian, dean of the intellectual property School of East China University of political Science and Law, believes that the distribution platform should bear the legal responsibility of technical security, network information security and financial security.

Qin Yuanming, judge of the third Civil trial Court of the Supreme people's Court, pointed out that electronic evidence is one of the legal types of evidence, and the people's court adopts a positive and open attitude towards the collection and storage of evidence in the block chain. The parties are encouraged to adopt such new techniques to provide evidence and improve their ability to provide evidence. Preserving and submitting evidence by means of block chain is helpful to solve the problem of difficult proof.

Tian Xinwen, head of the Innovation and Research Center of Beijing Zhongban chain Technology Co., Ltd., said that blockchain technology has a very rich application scene in the field of copyright, and the problem of confirming copyright rights can be effectively solved through blockchain technology. Improve the efficiency of confirming rights and safeguarding rights, and greatly reduce the cost of copyright protection and copyright transactions.

On April 20 this year, the Hangzhou Internet Court held a public hearing on the dispute that the plaintiff Qizhe Company and a technology company of the defendant infringed upon the right of information network dissemination of the works, and ruled that the defendant immediately deleted the "Fat Tiger vaccination" NFT works published on the "meta-universe" platform operated by the company, and compensated Qizhe Company for economic losses and reasonable expenses totaling 4000 yuan.

The work involved in the case, "Fat Tiger vaccination" (photo provided by Hangzhou Internet Court)

Ye Shengnan, vice president of the second Internet trial Court of Hangzhou Internet Court, took the case as an example to analyze the copyright issues in the distribution of NFT digital collections from the perspective of judicial trial. She said that the defendant, as a trading service platform for NFT digital works, failed to fulfill the duty of censorship and was at fault subjectively, and his behavior constituted an infringement of help. The NFT digital works trading platform should bear a higher duty of censorship and care. It is not only necessary to fulfill the responsibilities of general network service providers, but also to establish a set of intellectual property review mechanism to conduct a preliminary examination of the copyright of NFT works traded on the platform, otherwise they should bear corresponding legal responsibilities.

Experts suggest to use blockchain technology to store copyright certificates, to achieve preliminary confirmation of rights, and to introduce technical solutions to improve the whole industry chain from use, development, rights protection, mediation to transactions.

"Digital technology helps to make the collection of cultural relics go to thousands of households, and museums in the future cannot do without digital technology." Zhu Xiaoyun, deputy director of the operation and development department of the National Museum of China, believes that digital cultural collections can better satisfy the audience's sense of experience and achievement through the application of digital technology. The long-term and healthy development of the digital collection market depends on the balance of rights and obligations among copyright owners, designers and platforms. we hope to establish a unified standard to guide the healthy development of the market.

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版权声明:新华网 发表于 2022-07-09 10:57。
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