一夜没了14万元,B站虚拟主播还背上平台的“债”

科技 5个月前 豹变
200 0 0
【腾讯云】多款云产品1折起,买云服务器送免费机器,最长免费续3个月

6月28日,B站许多虚拟主播都收到了一条强制退款通知,扣除主播收益中未成年人打赏费用,甚至有主播总退款金额高达14万元。按照B站的规定,主播们想要弥补这部分扣款,只能通过继续直播、粉丝打赏来偿还。中小主播们就此踏上直播还“债”路。

“一下子天都塌了下来,整个人都木了。”6月28日,B站虚拟主播桃宝Momoko在一条视频中说。

那天晚上,她突然收到B站直播运营团队发来的通知,称未成年人粉丝先后在其直播间进行打赏,现监护人主张退款,并提供了相应的证明材料。这些钱中包含了这位未成年人近半年来的所有打赏,平台和主播总退款金额为14余万元,将扣除主播账户中等价值7万多元的金仓鼠。

“金仓鼠”是B站直播的通用货币。粉丝付费打赏后,B站从主播的打赏收入中拿走50%的平台抽成,剩余部分是主播获得的收益,这些收益通过金仓鼠结算。对于中小虚拟主播来说,这笔突如其来的大额退款,可能相当于几个月的收入。

这天晚上,不止桃宝Momoko收到了强制退款的通知,据新浪科技报道,已有十几位主播收到退款通知。

按照B站的打赏机制,此次扣款直接扣除主播们金仓鼠账户中的货币,主播们无法通过直接打款至金仓鼠中来填“坑”,只能通过继续直播,粉丝继续打赏来弥补这笔退款。

而且,由于B站会拿走打赏收入50%的分成,意味着桃宝Momoko欠下的7万块钱,需要通过直播获得14万的打赏才能还清。

被未成年人退款的虚拟主播们,就这样背上了来自B站的“债”。

虚拟主播,直播还“债”

桃宝Momoko在视频中,提到了自己与这位粉丝在直播间最初相遇的时刻。

这位粉丝进入直播间后,接连付费,买了“舰长、提督、总督”,价格分别为198元、1998元和19998元,主播称当时“像梦一般的场景”。用户购买“舰长、提督、总督”,相当于按月对主播进行打赏,主播可以从中获得分成。

由于礼物金额过大,桃宝Momoko表示,自己曾经问过对方是不是未成年人,这位粉丝当时自称19岁,还说“这些钱不算什么”。

直播打赏是虚拟主播重要的收入来源。在这次事件中,主播们的退款金额从几千到十几万不等,这对很多中小主播来说,无疑是当头一棒。

前段时间,“虚拟主播B站直播2小时收入超百万”的话题登上热搜,让很多不了解这一行业的人,第一次看到了头部虚拟主播的光芒万丈。

但中小虚拟主播并没有大众想象中的光鲜亮丽。B站UP主小鱼对《豹变》表示,虚拟主播的起步成本是所有主播中最高的。

“好的声卡和话筒是标配。另外,因为要带动虚拟主播形象,所以要有好的摄像头和电脑显卡。虚拟形象上,立绘正常需要2000到4000元,建模得2000以上,再加上开播的logo、直播页面、壁纸、个人头像,光是起步最少需要3万到4万。”

有关虚拟主播的日常支出,小鱼告诉《豹变》:“虚拟主播一般每几个月都会约一张壁纸作为观众反馈,静态的最低2000块,好一点的四五千。”

而中小虚拟主播的收入并不可观,小鱼说:“主播的直播间流水B站拿一半,主播拿一半,主播的那一半还需要减去缴税的钱。和B站或者公司签约的主播还有分成问题。总之,主播最终大概只能拿到流水的35%-40%。”

一位受访对象透露,某6万粉丝的虚拟主播,每月直播间流水大概4万左右,到手1.5万元。除此之外,主播每个月还有必要的直播成本,如送用户礼物、几个月一张定制壁纸、翻唱的曲绘等,平均下来中等主播每个月只能剩1万元左右。

一夜没了14万元,B站虚拟主播还背上平台的“债”

某主播给打赏粉丝准备的礼物

B站虚拟主播可可告诉《豹变》,早在一年前她刚入行的时候,就经历过未成年人退款,“当时刚刚试播,也没有想过未成年的事情。”

收到B站的退款消息后,可可的金仓鼠账户里直接欠了6000多元,这对新人来说负担很大。由于金仓鼠只能通过直播打赏入账,再加上B站的抽成,所以可可需要一万多的打赏才能补上这个负债,她花了两个月的时间才还清这笔钱。

桃宝Momoko也在视频中对观众说:“这7万块钱对我来说像是山一样,果然天上就没有掉馅饼的好事。”

按流程退钱,不亏不赚?

家长申诉未成年人打赏合情合理,平台、主播理应退款。按照原金额退回,这对主播、B站来说只是按流程行事,看似谁也不多亏,谁也不多赚。

然而,事实果真如此吗?

首先,从未成年人保护的角度,监护人有权利要求平台退款。2022年5月7日,网信办等四部门联合发布 《关于规范网络直播打赏 加强未成年人保护的意见》,其中提到:严格落实实名制要求,禁止为未成年人提供各类打赏服务,对未成年人冒用成年人账号打赏的情况,属实的须按规定办理退款。

但对于主播来说,平台的处理方式似乎并没有那么公平。

“B站并没有开通主播直接使用银行卡、支付宝等退款的方式,只能通过直播入账金仓鼠。假设主播B站金仓鼠里被未成年退款,欠下1万,由于B站需要拿走主播50%的收益分成,那就意味着主播需要在将来的直播中,获得2万的打赏才能还清金仓鼠里的1万欠款。”某万粉主播的粉丝管理小嘉告诉《豹变》。

她说:“就好比老板对一个打工人说,你最近干得不错,我给你一大笔奖金。然后你很开心,以为是自己的努力换来了回报,拿着这笔钱去买自己喜欢的东西或者用于提升自身。然后等你把奖金都花完了,老板又说最近公司效益不好,之前的奖金就当是你未来的工资吧,你还只能打工还。”

上海汉宗律师事务所的汪申律师对《豹变》表示:“主播和平台之间需要有明确的合同约定。如主播签署类似‘如发生退款,则在主播账户中退回相应的金仓鼠’的条款,要求主播只能通过金仓鼠来退款的合约,那么是合规的。如果没有此类协议,主播却只能通过直播赚取金仓鼠的方式来弥补退款,属于强制劳动,不合法不合规。”

这笔退款从金额来看,主播归还了未成年人家长应该索回的这部分钱。但是从站内机制来说,主播相当于在不知情的情况下,预支了这部分工资,需要更加努力工作来偿还。而且,主播们还损失了部分直播投入成本。

小鱼告诉《豹变》:“虚拟主播越来越多,形成了一定内卷。为了留住观众们,主播们会给打赏了舰长、总督的用户送礼物。礼物也是越送越多,有的直播间甚至出现了观众上舰长主播亏本的现象。从成本来看,今年主播的壁纸、立绘价格大涨,一个立绘建模需要8000左右。普遍下来,主播们收入比去年少,支出却增多,所以今年未成年人退款影响力要远大于去年。”

而在未成年人退款前,主播给打赏用户送出去的礼物成本,是无法追回的。

2020年,曾有媒体曝光,一位网名为“朱可夫鬼鬼”利用了B站关于未成年人充值一事的漏洞,一举退款近200万,这个过程中甚至骗取了不少UP主的礼物、钱财等。

在虚拟主播和粉丝们中,时常流传着“不怕大哥不打钱,就怕大哥未成年”的调侃。由于隔着网络,无法直接识别粉丝是否成年,为了避免风险,部分主播在直播间中会显著标明“未成年不要打赏”的字样。

去年6月份,CEO陈睿在B站12周年演讲时透露,过去一年有超过3.2万名虚拟主播在B站开播,同比增长40%。可以说,B站是中国虚拟主播最丰富、聚集度最高的平台。

维护良好的社区生态对B站来说尤为重要。今年6月26日,B站13周年庆的演讲上,陈睿围绕“宝藏UP主”进行主题演讲,他表示:“能够不断地去产生宝藏UP主,既是B站的活力所在,也是B站的价值所在。”

宝藏主播的入驻,对B站来说的确是好事,但小嘉告诉《豹变》:“这种情况下,虚拟主播们无论签没签公司,都不敢轻易起诉B站。因为目前国内虚拟主播只能在B站播,很难在其他平台运营。”

平台的打赏漏洞,谁来补?

我国未成年人互联网普及率极高。据中国互联网络信息中心发布的数据,2020年中国未成年网民规模达1.83亿,未成年人互联网普及率94.9%。保护未成年人一直是互联网监管的重点。

在过去几年里,“打赏门”事件不胜枚举,热衷直播打赏的未成年人绝非个例,而很多时候,家长们也维权困难。

在新浪旗下消费者服务平台黑猫投诉上,搜索“未成年”,相关结果有8万多条,其中很大一部分是“未成年人消费不给予退款”的投诉。

这类事件不断引发关注,平台、家长、主播苦“未成年人打赏”久矣。

2020年11月23日,广电总局下达了《国家广播电视总局关于加强网络秀场直播和电商直播管理的通知》,网络秀场直播平台要对网络主播和“打赏”用户实行实名制管理。

《通知》中明确平台要通过实名验证、人脸识别、人工审核等措施,确保实名制要求落到实处,封禁未成年用户的打赏功能。平台应对用户每次、每日、每月最高打赏金额进行限制。

不同平台的对策各不相同,例如腾讯游戏在限制已实名未成年人的基础上,扩大人脸识别的应用,通过 AI 机器学习等技术手段,根据用户游戏内行为特征判定身份后,“疑似未成年人账号”登录和支付时,需要人脸识别验证。

但在监管禁止未成年人打赏的情况下,B站的未成年人是如何完成大额打赏的?

B站客服明确表示,未满18岁无法进行充值或消费。另外,B站用户手动开启“青少年模式”,也无法进行充值、打赏功能。

但“漏洞”在于,未进行实名认证、未答题成为正常会员的B站账号,是可以正常打赏、付费的。对此,《豹变》咨询B站客服,对方仅回答“以实际提示的为准”。

一夜没了14万元,B站虚拟主播还背上平台的“债”

汪申律师对《豹变》说:“大额付款需要进行消费主体身份验证,比如人脸识别等。这个机制在游戏中就有,在直播打赏中运用上也并不困难。”

如果未成年人用未实名认证的账号进行打赏,B站客服表示,需要提供未成年人及监护人身份信息、交易记录、退款承诺函等即可申请办理。

站在家长的角度,发生未成年人打赏时,B站比其他平台更容易退钱,其他很多平台需要证据证明在打赏时是未成年人在操作。

而站在主播们的角度,除了在直播间提醒未成年人不要打赏,能做的并不多。主播可可无奈地对《豹变》说:“我们也没有办法,只能走一步看一步了。”

7月2日晚上,虚拟主播桃宝Momoko在B站再次开启直播还债,直播标题为:“喝西北风的第四天”。

(应受访者要求,小鱼、可可、小嘉为化名)

"all of a sudden, the sky fell, and the whole person was completely numb." Bilibili's virtual anchor Taobao Momoko said in a video on June 28th.

That night, she suddenly received a notice from bilibili's live broadcast operation team, saying that minor fans had successively offered a reward in her studio, and now the guardian advocated a refund and provided corresponding supporting materials. The money includes all the rewards of the minor over the past six months, and the total refund amount of the platform and the anchor is more than 140,000 yuan, which will be deducted from the golden hamster with a medium value of more than 70,000 yuan in the anchor account.

Golden Hamster is the common currency broadcast live by bilibili. After fans pay for the reward, bilibili takes 50% of the VJ's reward income from the platform, and the rest is the VJ's income, which is settled by the golden hamster. For small and medium-sized virtual anchors, this sudden large refund may be equivalent to a few months of income.

That night, not only Taobao Momoko received a compulsory refund notice, according to Sina Technology, more than a dozen anchors have received refund notices.

According to bilibili's reward mechanism, the deduction directly deducts the currency in the golden hamster account of the anchors. The anchors cannot fill the "pit" by transferring money directly to the golden hamster, but can only make up for the refund by continuing the live broadcast and fans continuing to reward them.

而且,由于B站会拿走打赏收入50%的分成,意味着桃宝Momoko欠下的7万块钱,需要通过直播获得14万的打赏才能还清。

Virtual anchors who have been refunded by minors are thus burdened with "debts" from bilibili.

虚拟主播,直播还“债”

In the video, Taobao Momoko mentioned the moment when he and the fan first met in the studio.

After entering the studio, the fan paid one after another to buy "Captain, Governor and Governor" at a price of 198yuan, 1998 yuan and 19998 yuan respectively. The anchor said it was a "dream-like scene" at that time. The purchase of "Captain, Governor and Governor" by users is equivalent to rewarding the anchorman monthly, from which the anchorman can get a share.

Because the amount of the gift was too large, Taobao Momoko said he had asked if he was a minor. The fan claimed to be 19 at the time and said, "the money is nothing."

Live broadcast reward is an important source of income for virtual anchors. In this incident, the amount of refunds for anchors ranged from several thousand to more than one hundred thousand, which is undoubtedly a blow to many small and medium-sized anchors.

前段时间,“虚拟主播B站直播2小时收入超百万”的话题登上热搜,让很多不了解这一行业的人,第一次看到了头部虚拟主播的光芒万丈。

但中小虚拟主播并没有大众想象中的光鲜亮丽。B站UP主小鱼对《豹变》表示,虚拟主播的起步成本是所有主播中最高的。

"A good sound card and microphone are standard. In addition, in order to drive the image of virtual anchors, it is necessary to have good cameras and computer graphics cards. In terms of virtual images, vertical painting normally costs 2000 to 4000 yuan, with a modeling score of more than 2000. Coupled with the launch of logo, live page, wallpaper, and personal avatars, it will cost at least 30 to 40 thousand to start. "

With regard to the daily expenses of virtual anchors, Xiaoyu told Leopard change: "Virtual anchors usually use a piece of wallpaper as audience feedback every few months, with a static minimum of 2000 yuan and a better one of four or five thousand yuan."

While the income of small and medium-sized virtual anchors is not considerable, Xiaoyu said: "the anchorman's studio water bilibili takes half, the anchorman gets half, and the anchor's half still needs to subtract the tax money." There is still a problem with bilibili or the anchor who signed up with the company. In short, the VJ can only get 35% and 40% of the running water in the end. "

An interviewee revealed that a virtual anchor with 60, 000 fans flows about 40, 000 yuan a month between live broadcasts, earning 15000 yuan. In addition, anchors also have necessary live broadcast costs every month, such as giving gifts to users, a piece of custom wallpaper for a few months, a cover of music painting, and so on. On average, medium anchors only have about 10,000 yuan per month.

某主播给打赏粉丝准备的礼物

Bilibili virtual anchor Coco told Leopard change that she had experienced a minor refund when she first joined the industry a year ago. "at that time, I just tried it out, and I didn't think about being a minor."

After receiving bilibili's refund message, Coco's golden hamster account directly owed more than 6000 yuan, which is a great burden on the newlyweds. Since the golden hamster can only be credited with a live reward, plus bilibili's cut, Coco needs more than 10, 000 rewards to cover the debt, which took her two months to pay off.

Taobao Momoko also told the audience in the video: "this 70, 000 yuan is like a mountain to me, and sure enough, there is no pie in the sky."

按流程退钱,不亏不赚?

It is reasonable for parents to complain about the reward of minors, and the platform and anchors should have a refund. According to the original amount refunded, for anchors and bilibili, this is just following the process. No one seems to be grateful to anyone, and no one earns much.

However, is this really the case?

First of all, from the perspective of the protection of minors, the guardian has the right to ask for a refund from the platform. On May 7, 2022, the Internet Information Office and other four departments jointly issued the opinions on standardizing the Network Live broadcast reward and strengthening the Protection of minors, which mentioned that the requirements of the real-name system should be strictly implemented, and it is forbidden to provide all kinds of reward services for minors. If it is true that minors use adult accounts to reward, they must apply for a refund in accordance with the relevant provisions.

But for anchors, the platform doesn't seem to be that fair.

Bilibili did not open the anchor to directly use bank cards, Alipay and other refund methods, can only be recorded through the live broadcast of the golden hamster. Suppose that the golden hamster of VJ B is refunded by minors and owes 10,000, because bilibili needs to take 50% of the income share of the VJ, which means that the VJ needs to get a reward of 20,000 in the future live broadcast in order to pay off the 10,000 arrears in the Golden Hamster. " Xiao Jia, a fan manager of a fan anchor, told Leopard change.

"it's like the boss said to a beater, you've done a good job lately, and I'll give you a big bonus," she said. Then you are very happy, thinking that your efforts have been rewarded, and use the money to buy something you like or to improve yourself. Then when you spend all the bonuses, the boss says that the company's performance is not good recently, and the previous bonus will be regarded as your future salary, and you can only pay it back by working. "

Wang Shen, a lawyer from Shanghai Hanzong Law firm, told Leopard change: "there needs to be a clear contract agreement between the anchor and the platform." If the VJ signs a contract such as "if a refund occurs, the corresponding golden hamster will be returned in the VJ's account", requiring the VJ to refund only through the golden hamster, then it will be in compliance. If there is no such agreement, the anchor can only earn the golden hamster live to make up for the refund, which belongs to forced labor and is illegal and illegal. "

In terms of the amount of the refund, the anchorman returned the money that the parents of the minor should have claimed. However, from the point of view of the on-site mechanism, the anchor is equivalent to an advance of this part of the salary without knowing it, and needs to work harder to repay it. Moreover, the anchors also lost part of the investment cost of live broadcasting.

Xiaoyu told Leopard change: "there are more and more virtual anchors, forming a certain volume." In order to retain the audience, anchors will give gifts to users who have rewarded the captain and the governor. Gifts are also given more and more, and some studios even lose money on the captain's anchorman. From the cost point of view, the price of the anchor's wallpaper and vertical painting has soared this year, and a vertical painting modeling needs about 8000. Generally speaking, anchors earn less than last year, but spend more, so the influence of minors' refunds this year is much greater than last year. "

而在未成年人退款前,主播给打赏用户送出去的礼物成本,是无法追回的。

In 2020, the media exposed that a person named "Zhukov Ghost" took advantage of bilibili's loophole about the recharge of minors and refunded nearly 2 million yuan at one stroke, and even swindled a lot of gifts and money from UP owners in the process.

Among virtual anchors and fans, there is often a joke that "if you are not afraid of your eldest brother's transfer of money, you are afraid of being a minor." Because it is impossible to directly identify whether the fans are adults across the Internet, in order to avoid risk, some anchors will prominently mark the words "No reward for minors" in the studio.

Last June, CEO Chen Rui revealed in bilibili's 12th anniversary speech that more than 32000 virtual anchors had been broadcast on bilibili in the past year, an increase of 40 per cent over the same period last year. It can be said that bilibili is the richest and most aggregated platform for virtual anchors in China.

It is particularly important for bilibili to maintain a good community ecology. In a speech celebrating the 13th anniversary of bilibili on June 26 this year, Chen Rui gave a keynote speech on "Treasure UP Master". He said: "to be able to constantly produce treasure UP master is not only the vitality of bilibili, but also the value of bilibili."

The arrival of Treasure Anchor is indeed a good thing for bilibili, but Xiao Jia told Leopard change: "under such circumstances, virtual anchors dare not easily sue bilibili whether they sign the company or not. Because at present, domestic virtual anchors can only broadcast at station B, so it is difficult to operate on other platforms. "

平台的打赏漏洞,谁来补?

The Internet penetration rate of minors in China is extremely high. According to data released by the China Internet Network Information Center, the number of underage Internet users in China reached 183 million in 2020, and the Internet penetration rate of minors was 94.9%. The protection of minors has always been the focus of Internet regulation.

在过去几年里,“打赏门”事件不胜枚举,热衷直播打赏的未成年人绝非个例,而很多时候,家长们也维权困难。

On the black cat complaint on Sina's consumer service platform, a search for "underage" resulted in more than 80,000 results, a large part of which were complaints about "no refund for underage consumption".

Such incidents have attracted constant attention, and platforms, parents and anchors have been suffering from "underage reward" for a long time.

On November 23, 2020, the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television issued the Circular of the State Administration of Radio, Film and Television on strengthening the management of live broadcast of online shows and e-commerce, and the live broadcast platform of online shows should implement real-name management for network anchors and "reward" users.

The notice makes it clear that the platform should adopt measures such as real-name verification, face recognition and manual audit to ensure that the requirements of the real-name system are implemented and ban the reward function of underage users. The platform should limit the maximum amount of reward each time, every day and every month.

The countermeasures of different platforms are different. For example, Tencent Games expands the application of face recognition on the basis of restricting minors with real names. Through technical means such as AI machine learning, after determining the identity according to the characteristics of the user's game, the "suspected minor account" needs face recognition verification when logging in and paying.

However, under the circumstances that the supervision forbids the reward of minors, how do bilibili's minors complete the large reward?

Bilibili customer service made it clear that under the age of 18 can not recharge or consumption. In addition, bilibili users manually open the "youth mode", can not recharge, reward function.

However, the "loophole" is that bilibili accounts that have not carried out real-name authentication and have not answered questions and become normal members can be rewarded and paid normally. In this regard, "Leopard change" to consult bilibili customer service, the other side only answered "to the actual prompt shall prevail."

Lawyer Wang Shen told Leopard change: "large payments require consumer identity verification, such as face recognition." This mechanism is already in the game, and it is not difficult to use it in live rewards. "

If minors are rewarded with accounts that are not authenticated by their real names, bilibili customer service said that they need to provide information on the identity of minors and guardians, transaction records, refund promises, and so on.

From the parents' point of view, when a minor reward occurs, bilibili is easier to refund money than other platforms, and many other platforms need evidence to prove that the minor is operating at the time of reward.

From the point of view of anchors, there is not much that can be done except to remind minors not to reward in the studio. Anchor Coco said helplessly to Leopard change: "We have no choice but to take it one step at a time."

On the evening of July 2, virtual anchor Taobao Momoko once again opened a live broadcast on bilibili to pay off debts, with the title: "the fourth day of drinking the northwest wind".

(at the request of the interviewees, Xiaoyu, Coco and Xiaojia are aliases)

【腾讯云】多款云产品1折起,买云服务器送免费机器,最长免费续3个月
版权声明:豹变 发表于 2022-07-04 11:10。
转载请注明:一夜没了14万元,B站虚拟主播还背上平台的“债” | ColaBug

相关文章

colabug网址导航在线提交网站

暂无评论

-游客点评-
等待评论...