疯狂的数字藏品,下一个造富神话?

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“入选《柯林斯词典》2021年度词汇,年使用率增长110000%。”这是2021年NFT的傲人战绩。所谓NFT,是指具有不可分割、不可替代等特性的非同质化代币。本质上,NFT和加密货币区别不大,唯一的区别是,NFT会指向一个虚拟物品,比如图片、视频、音乐等。“去年是万物皆可NFT,今年是万物皆可数藏。”IP授权从业者张莉说。

广发证券研报指出,实际上,中国数字藏品市场和海外NFT市场已演变为两种行业生态。“NFT”强调非同质化代币的金融价值,而“数字藏品”强调数字资产的内容价值。

在国内,由于监管原因,一定程度上限制了二级市场的炒作,原先以NFT之名的业务多数已演变为“数字藏品”。

且与海外NFT市场不同,国内数字藏品走了另外一条路——限量复制。一个藏品限量发售多则上千份,少则几十份,价格从十几元至几千元不等。

借着元宇宙的东风,具有“中国特色”的数字藏品成为大厂和资本的“新宠”,被视为下一个互联网风口。

据网经社旗下电商大数据库“电数宝”监测数据显示,今年上半年,数字藏品融资事件数共13起,融资总金额超过1亿元。

万物皆可“数藏”

2021年6月,支付宝联合敦煌美术研究所在“蚂蚁链粉丝粒”的支付宝小程序上,全球限量发布了两款名为“敦煌飞天”和“九色鹿”的NFT皮肤。这被视为国内大厂布局数藏的开始。

两个月后,腾讯上线了国内首个NFT交易App“幻核”,首期限量发行300枚“十三邀”的黑胶唱片NFT。

上述支付宝“蚂蚁链粉丝粒”和腾讯“幻核”上发售的NFT在去年10月底全部更名为数字藏品。

当下,数字藏品的形式愈发多样,包括画作、音乐、视频、3D模型、电子票证、游戏道具、表情包、虚拟地产、音乐专辑等。

大厂中,京东、网易、百度、字节、哔哩哔哩、小红书已纷纷参与其中。

1月,B站宣布旗下首款数字艺术头像鸽德发布,全网限量发行2233个;2月,阿里巴巴发布奥运云徽章数字藏品,包括短道速滑款、自由式滑雪空中技巧款、自由式滑雪坡面障碍技巧款、花样滑冰款等4款,每款限量8888份;4月,百度在航天日期间发布太空兔挖月壤、祝融号探索火星等一系列数字藏品。

疯狂的数字藏品,下一个造富神话?

据中华网《2021 年中国数字藏品(NFT)市场分析总结》,2021年中国各发售平台数字藏品发售数量约456万份,总发行价值约为1.5亿元;华夏时报报道,截至2022年6月15日,国内数字藏品发行平台数量已经突破500家。而在今年2月,国内数字藏品平台仅为100余家。

大厂之外,就在今天(6月28日),云南旅游局传出信息:云南旅游官方助手游云南平台将于6月29日限量发售1200份“云境十六州·自在大理”数字藏品。同日,华商报称将在区块链上发售改版25周年珍贵头版数字藏品系列。

而前一天,中国八大菜系之一徽菜的数字藏品发布会在安徽黄山举行。

疯狂的数字藏品,下一个造富神话?

短短两日内,从祖国的西南到西北,再到华东,从旅游业到文化业,再到餐饮业。时下“受宠”的数字藏品已经遍地开花。

据财通证券研究所的统计,上周工作日期间,文旅数字藏品日均发行额为255.6万元,平均每日发行5.3万件文旅数字藏品。

从运营主体的规模来看,主流仍为背靠蚂蚁、腾讯、京东等大厂的鲸探、幻核、灵稀、红洞等平台。IP资源丰富,发新品频率较高。

但更多还是良莠不齐的小平台,没有知名度通常也让小平台更难获取资源,而其中,还不乏一些投机者。

吃到红利的人

早在两年前,张莉就开始关注NFT相关的信息,因为“看不懂”,她不敢出手。但眼下,她感觉到了不得不参与的时候。

“大家都在做,不做不行了。而且,我们是IP代理商,还有来自版权方的压力。现在这个领域大家都在开拓,你不去开拓就可能面临着版权方会收回IP的问题。虽然看不懂,我们也只能顺着这股潮流走一下。”张莉告诉全天候科技。

张莉的顾虑不是没有道理,近年来,营销赛道拥挤、消费者审美疲劳,为寻找新的营销增长点,热门IP不断在授权、跨界联合、多渠道营销等方式之间来回切换,试图盘活IP市场。

今年,全球最火的无聊猿创造了数字版权的奇迹。通过每销售一次,原创者可收取2.5%版税的方式,无聊猿创作者拿到了3000万美金。

毫无疑问,数字藏品让IP版权方看到了多条盘活市场和资源的路径。

比如,数字藏品让IP衍生品不再局限于周边、盲盒、手办等实物,可以拓展为图片、动画、3D 建模等数字内容。

尽管入局并不主动,张莉还是尝到了数藏带来的“甜头”。“我们与平台联合发布数字藏品,平台给到我们的收益是保底加分成的形式。这个分成是指,营业额超过发行总额,平台方、运营方和我们版权方是要按比例来分的。做数藏,100块钱,他们要分给我们40块,但过去实物授权,只能分到20块。”

这也导致数藏平台进一步加强对IP资源的争夺。

欧科云链研究院高级研究员蒋照生此前在接受媒体时表示,随着数字藏品产业的壮大,知名IP成为稀缺资源,能否拥有和发掘更多的IP资源,成为数字藏品平台建立竞争优势的关键。

“对于大部分已经入局或想入局数字藏品的公司,与其说数字藏品能够盘活资源和市场,倒不如说数藏本身就是一个很好的营销噱头。”长期关注数藏市场的FA机构创始人郑浩告诉全天候科技。

一些公司已经吃到了数藏的“红利”。从流量获取的角度来看,数字藏品自带的IP属性和社交属性可以迅速帮助品牌建立粉丝群体,维护品牌和消费者之间的长期联系。

典型的案例来自奈雪的茶,这家公司在6周年的生日上正式推出元宇宙IP形象“NAYUKI”并推出限量数字藏品盲盒。借此,奈雪的茶在72小时斩获GMV近2亿。

疯狂的数字藏品,下一个造富神话?

而还有一些公司正走在希望借助数藏提升影响力及业绩的路上。

日前,美图公司旗下数字收藏品牌美图宝石首次对外发售数字藏品像素记忆。这也是美图第二次试水数藏,今年4月,美图推出数字收藏品牌美图宝石,将第一期数字收藏命名为“灵境宝石”,限量发行2008个,以邀请制向极小部分用户开放。

在外界看来,数藏以及元宇宙风口,或许是主业业绩不佳的美图试图寻找的新的业绩增长点。

价值、投机与泡沫

“你小时候玩过卡片吗?小时候收藏卡片,长大后收藏名画、古玩,从这个层面说,收藏行为会让一些物品脱离它的使用价值,产生情感价值。”郑浩对全天候科技说,情感、故事加在一起,可重、可轻,所以大部分人购买数藏,买的是预期。

目前由于国内500余家数藏发行平台中,小平台占大多数,市场上的数藏质量仍然鱼龙混杂。

据界面新闻报道,3月底,腾讯微信开始大规模封禁数字藏品平台公众号。其中包括,iBox、一点数藏、归藏元宇宙、元本空间、ArtMeta元艺数等。

此外,在数藏发行过程中,或是为了吸引流量,或是为了吸引优质IP资源,部分平台也采取“自售自购”的手段。

“我也有一些朋友的平台就是这样做的,他们发一套数藏,第一期为了炒作,全部自己购买回来,在发行第二期、第三期的时候再拉高点价格,就能把第一期的钱赚回来。”张莉对全天候科技说。

不过,由于虚拟货币相关业务在国内属于非法金融活动,为了规避风险,防止数字藏品金融化,避免藏品二级交易市场的恶意炒作,国内大部分数字藏品发行平台以联盟链为主。

截至目前,蚂蚁、腾讯、京东、百度等互联网大厂发布的数藏发行平台,都暂时关闭了二次交易功能,并在购买须知中强调“请勿对数字藏品进行炒作、场外交易、欺诈”。

去掉金融属性,不得进行二次的数字藏品真的有价值吗?

“截至目前国内还没有相关法律,即便明面上不能二次交易,但既然大家购买的是预期,就肯定存在炒作和赚差价,不然这个东西从购买到手那一刻起就是零价值。”郑浩说。

据了解,大部分平台在发行数藏时便开通了“转赠”功能。例如,鲸探发行的数字藏品不支持二次交易,但允许客户可以在购买数字藏品并持满180天后转赠给他人,转赠方在持有两年后可再次转赠。

这为玩家在场外交易提供了土壤。如果用户在满足转赠时间要求之后,以“转赠”的名义而进行私下交易,这让数字藏品有了“灰色地带”。

“我可以通过平台转赠方式把它赠给别人,对方可以私下通过微信、支付宝转账给我。这种方式平台怎么会知道呢?”郑浩说。

据郑浩介绍,国内大部分数藏玩家都有QQ群、微信群,卖家可以在群内挂单,有时为了交易顺利,买卖双方还会邀请二者都熟悉的中间人来担保,确保交易顺利。

4月,三大金融协会联合发布《关于防范NFT相关金融风险的倡议》,指出NFT作为一项区块链技术创新应用,在丰富数字经济模式、促进文创产业发展等方面显现出一定的潜在价值,但同时也存在炒作、洗钱、非法金融活动等风险隐患。

消息一出,一些数藏平台的产品价格纷纷下跌,iBox因平台上数藏价格腰斩,一度冲上微博热搜前十,自5月中旬以来,最大跌幅高达85%。

“没有泡沫,技术怎么进步呢?”郑浩说。

"Last year, everything could be NFT. This year, everything could be counted." Zhang Li, an authorized practitioner of IP, said.

Guangfa Securities research newspaper pointed out that, in fact, China's digital collection market and overseas NFT market have evolved into two kinds of industry ecology. "NFT" emphasizes the financial value of non-homogeneous tokens, while "digital collection" emphasizes the content value of digital assets.

In China, due to regulatory reasons, the hype in the secondary market is limited to a certain extent, and most of the businesses originally in the name of NFT have evolved into "digital collections".

And different from the overseas NFT market, the domestic digital collection goes another way-limited reproduction. The limited edition of a collection ranges from thousands of copies to dozens of copies, with prices ranging from more than ten yuan to several thousand yuan.

With the east wind of Yuan Universe, digital collections with "Chinese characteristics" have become the "new darling" of big companies and capital, and are regarded as the next Internet outlet.

In the first half of this year, there were 13 financing events in digital collections, with a total financing amount of more than 100 million yuan, according to monitoring data from Dianshuibao, a large e-commerce database under the economic and social network.

Everything can be "hidden".

In June, Alipay and Dunhuang Fine Arts Research Institute released two types of NFT skin called "Dunhuang Flying Apsaras" and "Nine Color Deer" on Alipay Mini Program, which is called "Ant chain vermicelli". This is regarded as the beginning of the layout and storage of large domestic factories.

Two months later, Tencent launched China's first NFT deal, App "Magic Core", with the first limited release of 300 "thirteen invitations" vinyl album NFT.

The NFT sold on Alipay Ant chain vermicelli and Tencent Magic Core were all renamed digital collections at the end of October last year.

Nowadays, the forms of digital collections are becoming more and more diverse, including paintings, music, videos, 3D models, electronic tickets, game props, memes, virtual real estate, music albums and so on.

Among the big factories, JD.com, NetEase, Baidu, Byte, bilibili and Xiao Hongshu have participated in it one after another.

In January, bilibili announced the release of his first digital art avatar, Pigeon, with a limited release of 2233. In February, Alibaba released the digital collection of Olympic cloud badges, including short-track speed skating, freestyle skiing aerial skills, freestyle skiing slope obstacle skills, figure skating, etc., each limited to 8888 copies In April, Baidu released a series of digital collections such as Space Rabbit digging Moon soil and Zhu Rong exploring Mars during Space Day.

According to Chinanews.com 's "2021 China Digital Collection (NFT) Market Analysis and Summary", there were about 4.56 million digital collections sold on various platforms in China in 2021, with a total distribution value of about 150 million yuan. In February this year, there were only more than 100 digital collection platforms in China.

Outside the big factory, just today (June 28), Yunnan Tourism Bureau reported that Yunnan Tourism official Assistant Tour Yunnan platform will limit the sale of 1200 copies of the digital collection of "Yunjing sixteen states free Dali" on June 29. On the same day, Chinese businessmen reported that they would sell a series of precious front-page digital collections for the 25th anniversary of the revision on the block chain.

The day before, the digital collection of Huizhou cuisine, one of China's eight major cuisines, was held in Huangshan, Anhui Province.

In just two days, from the southwest to the northwest of the motherland, and then to East China, from tourism to the cultural industry, and then to the catering industry. Nowadays, "favorite" digital collections have sprung up everywhere.

According to statistics from the Caitong Securities Research Institute, during last week's working day, the average daily issuance of the Wen Lu digital collection was 2.556 million yuan, with an average of 53000 pieces of the Wen Lu digital collection issued daily.

From the scale of the main operators, the mainstream is still backed by ants, Tencent, JD.com and other large factories of whale detection, magic nuclear, Lingliu, red hole and other platforms. IP is rich in resources and has a high frequency of issuing new products.

But there are more small platforms that are mixed with the good and the bad, and the lack of popularity usually makes it more difficult for small platforms to obtain resources, and there is no shortage of speculators.

The one who gets the bonus.

As early as two years ago, Zhang Li began to pay attention to NFT-related information, because "do not understand", she did not dare to do so. But for now, she feels compelled to participate.

"everyone is doing it, so we have to do it. Moreover, we are IP agents and there is pressure from copyright holders. Now everyone is opening up this field, and if you don't open up, you may face the problem that the copyright owner will withdraw IP. Although we can't understand it, we can only follow this trend for a while. " Zhang Li told all-weather technology.

Zhang Li's concerns are not unreasonable. In recent years, the marketing track is crowded and consumers are aesthetically tired. In order to find new marketing growth points, popular IP continues to switch back and forth between authorization, cross-border joint, multi-channel marketing and other ways, trying to invigorate the IP market.

This year, the world's most popular bored ape created the miracle of digital copyright. By charging 2.5% royalties for each sale, the boring ape creator got $30 million.

There is no doubt that the digital collection allows IP copyright owners to see multiple ways to invigorate the market and resources.

For example, digital collections make IP derivatives no longer limited to the surrounding, blind boxes, hands and other physical objects, can be expanded to pictures, animation, 3D modeling and other digital content.

Although Zhang Li did not take the initiative to enter the game, Zhang Li still tasted the "sweetness" brought by Shizang. "We jointly release the digital collection with the platform, and the revenue given to us by the platform is in the form of bottom guarantee plus points. This share means that if the turnover exceeds the total amount of issuance, the platform, the operator and our copyright should be divided on a pro rata basis. For 100 yuan, they want to give us 40 yuan, but in the past, they could only get 20 yuan for physical authorization. "

This has also led to the further strengthening of the competition for IP resources on the digital Tibetan platform.

Jiang Zhaosheng, a senior researcher at the Okco Cloud chain Research Institute, said in an interview with the media that with the growth of the digital collection industry, well-known IP has become a scarce resource, and whether to own and explore more IP resources has become the key to building a competitive advantage for the digital collection platform.

"for most companies that have joined or want to join the digital collection, the digital collection itself is a good marketing gimmick rather than invigorating resources and markets." Zheng Hao, founder of FA, who has long followed the digital Tibet market, told all-weather technology.

Some companies have already received several hidden "dividends". From the perspective of traffic acquisition, the IP and social attributes of digital collections can quickly help brands build fan groups and maintain a long-term relationship between brands and consumers.

A typical example comes from Nai Xue's tea, which officially launched the meta-universe IP image "NAYUKI" on its 6th birthday and launched a limited edition of digital collection blind boxes. In this way, Nai Xue's tea won nearly 200 million GMV in 72 hours.

And some companies are on the way to improve their influence and performance with the help of digital hiding.

A few days ago, Meitu's digital collection brand Meitu gemstone sold digital collection pixel memory for the first time. This is also the second time that Meitu has tested the water. In April this year, Meitu launched the digital collection brand Meitu gemstones, naming the first phase of the digital collection "Lingjing Gem", with a limited release of 2008, open to a very small number of users under the invitation system.

In the eyes of the outside world, several Tibet and meta-universe tuyere may be the new performance growth point that Meitu, which is not performing well in its main business, is trying to find.

Value, speculation and Bubble

"did you ever play with cards when you were a kid? Collect cards when you were young, and collect famous paintings and antiques when you grow up. From this level, collection will make some items detached from their use value and produce emotional value. " Zheng Hao told all-weather technology that emotions and stories can be heavy and light, so most people buy digital collection and buy what they expect.

At present, due to the domestic more than 500 digital Tibetan distribution platforms, small platforms account for the majority, the quality of digital storage in the market is still mixed.

Tencent Wechat began a massive ban on official accounts on digital collection platform at the end of March, according to Interface News. These include iBox, Dianshizang, Guizang Yuan Universe, Yuan Yuan Space, ArtMeta Yuan Art number, and so on.

In addition, in the process of issuing digital Tibet, either to attract traffic or to attract high-quality IP resources, some platforms also adopt "self-selling and self-purchasing" means.

"I also have some friends' platforms that do this. They send out a set of data collection, and the first issue is bought back by themselves for hype. If they raise the price when the second and third issues are issued, they will be able to earn back the money of the first phase." Zhang Li said to all-weather technology.

However, as the virtual currency-related business is an illegal financial activity in China, in order to avoid risks, prevent the financialization of digital collections, and avoid malicious speculation in the collection secondary trading market, most of the domestic digital collection issuance platforms are mainly alliance chains.

So far, the digital collection distribution platforms released by Ant, Tencent, JD.com, Baidu and other Internet companies have temporarily shut down the secondary trading function, and stressed in the purchase instructions, "do not carry out hype, over-the-counter trading or fraud on digital collections."

Is it really valuable to get rid of the financial attribute and not to have a secondary digital collection?

"up to now, there is no relevant law in China, even if it is obvious that we cannot make a second transaction, but since what we are buying is expected, there must be hype and earn a price difference, otherwise this thing will be of zero value from the moment we buy it." Zheng Hao said.

It is understood that most platforms have launched the "transfer" function when issuing digital collections. For example, the digital collection issued by Whale Detective does not support secondary transactions, but allows customers to purchase the digital collection and hold it for 180 days to give it to others, and the transferor can transfer it again after holding it for two years.

This provides the ground for players to trade over-the-counter. If users make private transactions in the name of "transfer" after meeting the transfer time requirements, this creates a "grey area" for the digital collection.

"I can give it to others through the platform transfer, and the other party can transfer money to me privately through Wechat and Alipay. How can the platform know this way? " Zheng Hao said.

According to Zheng Hao, most domestic Tibetan players have QQ groups and WeChat groups, and sellers can hang orders in the group. sometimes, in order to make the transaction smooth, buyers and sellers will invite middlemen who are both familiar with them to guarantee the success of the transaction.

In April, the three major financial associations jointly issued the proposal on preventing NFT-related Financial risks, pointing out that as a blockchain technological innovation and application, NFT shows certain potential value in enriching the digital economic model and promoting the development of cultural and creative industries, but there are also hidden risks such as speculation, money laundering, illegal financial activities and so on.

As soon as the news came out, the prices of some products on the Tibetan platform fell one after another. As the price of some Tibetan products on the platform halved, iBox once broke into the top 10 of Weibo, with the biggest drop of 85% since mid-May.

"how can technology progress without bubbles?" Zheng Hao said.

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版权声明:全天候科技 发表于 2022-06-29 11:05。
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