《网络主播行为规范》印发 首次系统性全面规范网络主播行为

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国家广播电视总局、文化和旅游部近日联合发布《网络主播行为规范》(以下简称《行为规范》)。近年来,网络直播节目大量涌现,网络主播数量快速增长。在此过程中,网络主播队伍素质良莠不齐,进入门槛低,部分网络主播法律意识淡薄、价值观念扭曲。

《网络主播行为规范》印发 首次系统性全面规范网络主播行为

传播低俗庸俗内容、散布虚假信息、诱导非理性消费和大额打赏、炒作炫富拜金、偷逃税、损害未成年人身心健康等违法违规问题时有发生,严重扰乱行业秩序,污染社会风气,人民群众反映强烈,亟须对网络主播行为予以规范、加强监管。

“为加强规范管理,国家广播电视总局在广泛开展专题调研的基础上,会同文化和旅游部共同起草形成了《行为规范》。”国家广播电视总局人事司负责人表示,《行为规范》出台的目的是引导网络主播规范从业行为,强化社会责任,树立良好形象,将有利于提高网络主播队伍整体素质,治理行业乱象,规范行业秩序,通过规范管理进一步推动网络表演、网络视听行业持续健康发展。

对网络主播提出了多项具体要求

据介绍,《行为规范》规定了网络主播应当坚持的正向行为规范和要求。具体包括:遵守宪法和法律法规规范,维护国家利益、公共利益和他人合法权益;遵守网络实名制注册账号有关规定,实名注册并规范使用账号名称;坚持正确政治方向、舆论导向和价值取向,树立正确的世界观、人生观、价值观,积极践行社会主义核心价值观;坚持以人民为中心的创作导向,反映时代新气象、讴歌人民新创造;坚持健康的格调品味,自觉摒弃低俗庸俗媚俗,抵制破坏网络表演、网络视听生态的不良行为;引导用户文明互动、理性表达、合理消费;保持良好声屏形象,表演、服饰、妆容、语言、行为、肢体动作及画面展示等要符合大众审美情趣和欣赏习惯;尊重公民和法人的合法权益;遵守知识产权相关法律法规;依法履行纳税义务;规范使用国家通用语言文字;学习掌握从事主播工作所必需的知识技能,从事如医疗卫生、财经金融、法律、教育等需要较高专业水平直播的网络主播,应取得相应执业资质。

划定网络主播从业行为底线红线

针对目前网络表演及视听节目服务过程中存在的突出问题,《行为规范》还列出了网络主播在提供网络表演和视听节目服务过程中不得出现的行为,为网络主播从业行为划定了底线和红线。

“这些要求都是网络主播从业应当遵循的基本规范,有利于网络主播树立自身良好形象,有利于行业健康发展。”该负责人说。

针对社会广泛关切的未成年人合法权益和身心健康保护问题,《行为规范》第十四条进行了多处强化,积极为未成年人成长营造更加健康的网络环境。一是不得介绍或者展示自杀、自残、暴力血腥、高危动作和其他易引发未成年人模仿的危险行为,表现吸烟、酗酒等诱导未成年人不良嗜好的内容;二是不得利用未成年人或未成年人角色进行非广告类的商业宣传、表演或作为噱头获取商业或不正当利益,指引错误价值观、人生观和道德观的内容;三是不得通过有组织炒作、雇佣水军刷礼物、宣传“刷礼物抽奖”等手段,暗示、诱惑、鼓励用户大额“打赏”,引诱未成年用户“打赏”或以虚假身份信息“打赏”。

为落实文娱领域综合治理部署安排,整治“饭圈”乱象,《行为规范》第六条明确要求网络主播应当坚持健康的格调品位,自觉摒弃低俗、庸俗、媚俗等低级趣味,自觉反对流量至上、畸形审美、“饭圈”乱象、拜金主义等不良现象;《行为规范》第七条明确要求网络主播应当引导用户文明互动、理性表达、合理消费,共建文明健康的网络表演、网络视听生态环境。此外,《行为规范》第十四条还明确规定网络主播不得引导用户低俗互动,组织煽动粉丝互撕谩骂、拉踩引战、造谣攻击,实施网络暴力。

明确规范网络主播直播带货行为

当前,网络主播在直播带货中违法违规情况时有发生。针对公众反映强烈的虚假宣传、销售假冒伪劣商品、数据造假等损害消费者权益的问题,《行为规范》第十四条进行了明确。

一是不得营销假冒伪劣、侵犯知识产权或不符合保障人身、财产安全要求的商品,虚构或者窜改交易、关注度、浏览量、点赞量等数据流量造假;二是不得夸张宣传误导消费者,通过虚假承诺诱骗消费者,使用绝对化用语,违反广告相关法律法规未经许可直播销售专营、专卖物品等;三是不得通过“弹幕”、直播间名称、公告、语音等传播虚假、骚扰广告。

值得关注的是,对于此前社会关注的个别网络主播偷逃税现象,《行为规范》第十一条明确要求网络主播应当如实申报收入,依法履行纳税义务。

规定对网络主播违规行为的处罚

《行为规范》明确,网络表演、网络视听平台和经纪机构要严格落实对网络主播管理的主体责任,建立健全网络主播入驻、培训、日常管理、业务评分档案和“红黄牌”管理等内部制度规范。对出现违规行为的网络主播,要强化警示和约束;对问题性质严重、多次出现问题且屡教不改的网络主播,应当封禁账号,将相关网络主播纳入“黑名单”或“警示名单”,不允许以更换账号或更换平台等形式再度开播。对构成犯罪的网络主播,依法追究刑事责任。对违法失德艺人不得提供公开进行文艺表演、发声出镜机会,防止转移阵地复出。

有关行业协会对违法违规、失德失范、造成恶劣社会影响的网络主播要定期公布,引导各平台联合抵制、严肃惩戒。同时,对向上向善、模范遵守行为规范的网络主播,鼓励网络表演、网络视听平台和经纪机构对其进行正向激励。

Illegal and illegal problems such as spreading vulgar content, spreading false information, inducing irrational consumption and large reward, hype showing off wealth and worshiping money, tax evasion, and harming the physical and mental health of minors occur from time to time, seriously disturbing the order of the industry and polluting the social ethos. The people have a strong reaction, and there is an urgent need to standardize and strengthen supervision on the behavior of network anchors.

In order to strengthen standardized management, the State Administration of Radio, Television and Television has drafted the Code of Conduct jointly with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism on the basis of extensive special research. " A person in charge of the personnel Department of the State Administration of Radio and Television said that the purpose of the "Code of Conduct" is to guide network anchors to standardize their business behavior, strengthen social responsibility, and establish a good image, which will help to improve the overall quality of network anchors, control industry chaos, standardize industry order, and further promote the sustained and healthy development of network performance and network audio-visual industry through standardized management.

Put forward a number of specific requirements for network anchors.

According to reports, the "Code of Conduct" stipulates the positive norms and requirements that network anchors should adhere to. Specifically include: abide by the Constitution and laws and regulations, safeguard national interests, public interests and the legitimate rights and interests of others; abide by the relevant provisions of the network real-name system to register accounts, register and standardize the use of account names; adhere to the correct political direction, public opinion orientation and value orientation, establish a correct world outlook, outlook on life, values, and actively practice socialist core values Adhere to the people-centered creative orientation, reflect the new atmosphere of the times, eulogize the people's new creation, adhere to the healthy style and taste, consciously abandon vulgarity and kitsch, and resist the bad behavior that destroys the network performance and the network audio-visual ecology; guide users to interact with each other in civilization, express rationally and consume rationally Maintain a good sound screen image, performance, clothing, makeup, language, behavior, body movements and picture display should be in line with the aesthetic taste and appreciation habits of the public; respect the legitimate rights and interests of citizens and legal persons; abide by laws and regulations related to intellectual property rights; fulfill tax obligations in accordance with the law; standardize the use of national spoken and written languages Learn to master the necessary knowledge and skills for anchors, and network anchors who need a high professional level for live broadcasting, such as health care, finance and economics, law, education, etc., should obtain corresponding professional qualifications.

Draw a red line for the behavior of network anchors

In view of the outstanding problems existing in the process of network performance and audio-visual program service, the Code of Conduct also lists the behaviors that network anchors are not allowed to appear in the process of providing network performance and audio-visual program services. it draws a bottom line and a red line for the behavior of network anchors.

"these requirements are the basic norms that network anchors should follow, which are conducive to the network anchors to establish their own good image and to the healthy development of the industry." The person in charge said.

In view of the widespread concern of the society about the legitimate rights and interests of minors and the protection of their physical and mental health, Article 14 of the Code of Conduct has been strengthened in many ways to actively create a healthier network environment for the growth of minors. First, it is not allowed to introduce or display suicide, self-harm, violent and bloody, high-risk actions and other dangerous behaviors that can easily lead to minors' imitation, such as smoking, alcoholism and other contents that induce minors' bad habits; second, minors or their roles should not be used for non-advertising commercial publicity, performances or to obtain commercial or illegitimate interests as a gimmick to guide the contents of wrong values, outlook on life and morality. Third, by means of organized hype, hiring a water army to brush gifts, and publicizing the "gift lottery", users should not be hinted, seduced, or encouraged to "reward" a large amount of money, or to induce underage users to "reward" or "reward" with false identity information.

In order to implement the arrangement of comprehensive management in the field of entertainment and rectify the mess of "rice circle", Article 6 of the Code of Conduct clearly requires that network anchors should adhere to a healthy style and taste, and consciously abandon vulgar, vulgar, vulgar and other low tastes. Consciously oppose the flow supremacy, abnormal aesthetic, "rice circle" chaos, money worship and other bad phenomena Article 7 of the Code of Conduct clearly requires that network anchors should guide users to interact with each other in civilization, express rationally, consume reasonably, and jointly build a civilized and healthy network performance and network audio-visual ecological environment. In addition, Article 14 of the Code of Conduct also clearly stipulates that network anchors shall not guide users to interact with each other in vulgar ways, organize and incite fans to abuse each other, trample on lead wars, spread rumors, and carry out cyber violence.

Clearly standardize the behavior of live broadcast delivery by network anchors

At present, network anchors violate laws and regulations from time to time in live broadcasting. Article 14 of the Code of Conduct is clear in view of the strong false publicity reflected by the public, the sale of fake and shoddy commodities, data fraud and other problems that harm the rights and interests of consumers.

First, it is not allowed to market fake and shoddy goods, infringe intellectual property rights or do not meet the requirements for personal and property safety, and fabricate or tamper with data flows such as transactions, attention, views, likes, etc.; second, it is not allowed to exaggerate propaganda to mislead consumers, to deceive consumers through false promises, to use absolute language, and to violate relevant laws and regulations on advertising to sell franchises and articles without permission. Third, it is not allowed to spread false or harassing advertisements through "on-screen comments", studio names, announcements, voice, etc.

What is worth paying attention to is that with regard to the phenomenon of tax evasion of individual network anchors concerned by the society, Article 11 of the Code of Conduct clearly requires that network anchors should truthfully declare their income and fulfill their tax obligations in accordance with the law.

Stipulate the punishment for network anchors' violations.

The Code of Conduct makes it clear that network performances, network audio-visual platforms, and brokerage institutions should strictly implement the main responsibility for the management of network anchors. establish and improve the internal systems and norms of network anchors, such as stationing, training, daily management, business scoring files, and "red and yellow card" management. Warnings and restrictions should be strengthened for network anchors who have violations; for network anchors with serious problems and repeated problems, accounts should be blocked and relevant network anchors should be included in the "blacklist" or "warning list". Re-broadcasting in the form of changing accounts or platforms is not allowed. Internet anchors who constitute crimes shall be investigated for criminal responsibility in accordance with the law. Illegal and immoral artists shall not be provided with the opportunity to perform in public and make a sound, so as to prevent the resurgence of the transferred position.

The relevant industry associations should regularly announce the network anchors who violate the law and regulations, immoral anomie, and cause adverse social impact, and guide various platforms to boycott and seriously punish them. At the same time, network anchors who are good and exemplary in abiding by the code of conduct should be encouraged to give positive incentives to network performances, network audio-visual platforms and brokerage institutions.

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