热浪也将和飓风一样 可能很快就会有各自的名字

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越来越多的人要求像对待飓风那样对热浪进行命名和分类--以呼吁人们关注其重要性,提醒人们注意危险的温度,并促使公共官员采取行动。热浪已经成为美国最致命的紧急天气类型。它们比洪水、龙卷风或飓风的杀伤力更大,而且由于全球变暖,它们的频率和强度都在增加。

热浪也将和飓风一样 可能很快就会有各自的名字

过热对低收入社区的打击最严重,由于通常它并不会带来戏剧性的电视报道而被广泛警觉,所以人们有时会低估其风险。

公共预警系统的支持者说,命名热浪可以拯救生命,并触发诸如开放社区冷却站和要求人们留在室内的措施。

这个月,西班牙塞维利亚准备成为第一个开始命名严重热浪的城市。其他五个城市--洛杉矶、迈阿密、密尔沃基、密苏里州堪萨斯城和雅典--也已经开始试点类似的举措,使用气象数据和公共卫生标准对热浪进行分类。

他们将使用一个组织者希望标准化的三类系统,每个城市的系统将根据其特定的气候进行调整。例如,洛杉矶的"三类"热浪与密尔沃基的同一称号在外观和感觉上会有很大不同。

阿德里安娜-阿什特-洛克菲勒基金会复原力中心主任凯西-鲍曼-麦克劳德说:"一些最不习惯炎热的地方是最危险的,该中心正带头努力为热浪命名和分类。根据在全球六个城市启动的预警系统,"第一类"是最不严重的,而"第三类"将是"最可怕的10%的热浪"。对于所有这三种情况,我们建议尽可能呆在开着空调的室内。"

Kalkstein说,每个参与热浪命名和评级的城市"都有一套不同的公式",将决定这些类别是什么样子,部分是基于它们的城市结构。比如说。费城有很多砖砌的排屋,屋顶是黑色的柏油,会吸收更多热量。

任何一种指定都会有一系列预案,例如促使城市管理者将游泳池开放,减少户外运动,启动紧急供热线路,以及工作人员上门挨家挨户检查老年人和高危人群。

Arsht-Rock及其成立两年的极端热复原力联盟正在敦促国家海洋和大气管理局(NOAA)和世界气象组织将热浪的命名和排名作为标准做法。NOAA运营着美国国家气象局,该局到目前为止赞成早期预警系统,但不赞成命名系统。

国家气象局表示,虽然它"不为热浪命名",但它确实"赞赏持续研究和参与的价值,以促进我们对极端高温和其他天气事件的理解和应对。"与此同时,加州可能很快成为美国第一个建立极端高温事件预警和"排名"系统的州。州议会一致通过的相关立法不久将由州参议院审议。

建立全州预警系统的想法源于加州保险专员的一份报告。报告说:"加州对野火情况的'红旗'警告,美国环境保护局的空气质量应用程序,以及NOAA对热带风暴和飓风的命名系统可以作为命名和排名热浪的模板。"

7月,Arsht-Rock将发布关于13个城市的高温预期死亡率的预测,以及关于高温对工人生产力影响的新数据。

Overheating hits low-income communities hardest, and because it usually does not bring dramatic television coverage and is widely alerted, people sometimes underestimate its risks.

Supporters of the public early warning system say naming heatwaves can save lives and trigger measures such as opening community cooling stations and requiring people to stay indoors.

This month, Seville, Spain, is preparing to become the first city to start naming a severe heatwave. Five other cities-Los Angeles, Miami, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Missouri and Athens-have begun piloting similar initiatives, using weather data and public health standards to classify heat waves.

They will use three types of systems that organizers want to standardize, and each city's system will be adjusted to its specific climate. For example, Los Angeles's & quot; category & quot; heatwave will look and feel very different from the same title in Milwaukee.

Casey Bowman McLeod, director of the Adrianna Asht Rockefeller Foundation's resilience Center, said: & some of the most unaccustomed places in quot; are the most dangerous, and the center is spearheading efforts to name and classify heatwaves. According to the early warning system launched in six cities around the world, the first category of quot; & quot; is the least serious, and the third category of & quot; & quot; will be the most terrible 10% heat wave of & quot; & quot;. For all three cases, we recommend staying in an air-conditioned room as much as possible. & quot

Kalkstein says that each city that participates in the naming and rating of the heatwave, quot;, has a different formula & quot;, will determine what these categories look like, based in part on their urban structure. Like. There are many brick townhouses in Philadelphia, and their roofs are black tar, which absorbs more heat.

Any designation will have a series of plans, such as prompting city managers to open swimming pools, reducing outdoor sports, turning on emergency heating lines, and staff going door to door to check the elderly and high-risk groups.

Arsht-Rock and its two-year-old extreme Thermal resilience Alliance are urging the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the World Meteorological Organization to make the naming and ranking of heatwaves a standard practice. NOAA operates the National Weather Service, which so far favours an early warning system but not a naming system.

The National Weather Service says that although it & quot; does not name the heat wave & quot;, it does & quot; appreciate the value of ongoing research and participation to promote our understanding and response to extreme high temperatures and other weather events. & quot; at the same time, California may soon become the first state in the United States to establish an extremely high temperature event warning and quot; ranking & quot; system. The relevant legislation passed unanimously by the state legislature will soon be considered by the state Senate.

The idea of a statewide early warning system stems from a report by the California Insurance Commissioner. The report says: & quot; California on wildfires Red Flag & # 39; warning that the EPA's air quality application and NOAA's naming system for tropical storms and hurricanes can serve as templates for naming and ranking heatwaves. & quot

In July, Arsht-Rock will release forecasts of expected high temperature mortality in 13 cities, as well as new data on the impact of high temperatures on worker productivity.

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版权声明:cnBeta 发表于 2022-06-09 20:30。
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