与燃油车相比 电动汽车真的能节省大笔费用吗?

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据SlashGear报道,电动汽车革命的目的是减少对化石燃料的依赖,减少排放,并减少交通对气候变化的影响。这些都很好,但当涉及到个人消费者时,还有一个预期的好处,往往得到最多关注:节省燃料成本。虽然给电动车充电需要花钱,当然,费用通常低于一箱汽油的费用--尽管计算整体的燃料节省要更麻烦一些。

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美国能源部的燃油经济性网站允许用户比较汽油车、混合动力车和全电动车之间的燃料节约。根据该网站的工具,一辆2022款的日产聆风SV/SL在五年内平均可以为车主节省高达9250美元的燃料成本,与2022款现代Ioniq 5全轮驱动节省的费用相同。另一方面,2022款特斯拉Model 3 长续航全轮驱动版在五年内可节省更多的费用,达到10000美元。这些数字似乎很直接,显示每年可以节省数千美元的费用。然而,有一些因素需要考虑,包括车辆运行的状态,以及人们是否主要使用家庭或公共充电系统。

2021年10月,安德森经济集团发布了一份报告,比较了燃油车和电动汽车的成本,并得出结论,电动汽车可能比燃油车更昂贵。然而,在编制该报告时,安德森集团使用了大部分使用商业充电站充电的电动汽车的数据。该集团还增加了隐性成本,如充电所花费的时间。在某些情况下,使用公共充电桩的费用是在家充电的三倍。

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充电成本和燃料节省将取决于司机使用哪种充电器。据《Travel and Leisure》报道,Level 1充电器为电动车充电需要24小时;它们是最慢的充电器,但也是最便宜的。Level 2--最受欢迎的充电器--可以在一小时内提供约28英里的续航能力,价格从每小时1美元到5美元不等,取决于各州的情况。Level 3快速充电器是最昂贵的,但可以让电动车在一小时内达到80%的电量,费用为10至30美元。

特斯拉超级充电器的费用也很难估计,因为当地的电价和汽车电池的大小等因素。根据Impact Investor提供的充电成本计算器,为Model 3、Model Y或Model S进行一次充电,对大多数人来说费用可能在10至20美元之间。同时,汽油价格也因州而异。Finder在2022年4月报道,给 Ram 2500 加油的费用约为109美元,而吉普大切诺基或丰田4Runner的费用为79美元,给本田思域、丰田卡罗拉、马自达CX-30或本田CR-V加油的费用可以达到45美元或更少。

在美国,电费因城市和州的不同而有很大差异,而且由于各种因素,包括通货膨胀和大流行后复苏期间的经济放缓,价格一直在增加。CNBC在2022年3月报道,美国一些城市的电费一直在以与汽油差不多的速度上涨;然而,当涉及到燃料成本时,电动汽车所提供的节省仍然是巨大的。报告还说,虽然汽油价格在未来几个月可能会下降,但电动汽车的运营价格最终仍可能不会超过传统汽车的成本。

《Choose Energy 》将夏威夷州、康涅狄格州、罗德岛、马萨诸塞州和加州列为能源价格最高的前五个州。美国能源信息署的数据显示,从2021年2月到2022年2月,加州的电费增加了13.6%。伊利诺伊州的增幅为14.5%,而同期新罕布什尔州为14.9%,康涅狄格州为16.7%。在过去一年左右,几乎所有的州都出现了能源账单的增长,尽管不是所有的州都达到了如此剧烈的水平。

也就是说,虽然美国的能源价格在全面上涨,但汽油价格也在上涨。虽然在美国,与拥有汽油车相比,拥有电动汽车很可能会大大节省燃料成本。但人们看到的确切节省将部分基于他们居住的国家的哪个地区,其目前的电价,以及未来几个月和几年将面临的电价。

The U.S. Department of Energy's fuel economy website allows users to compare fuel savings among gasoline, hybrid and all-electric vehicles. According to the website's tools, a 2022 Nissan leaf SV/SL can save owners an average of $9250 in fuel costs over five years, the same as the 2022 modern Ioniq 5 all-wheel drive. On the other hand, the 2022 Tesla Model 3 long-range all-wheel drive version can save more money in five years, reaching US $10000. These figures seem straightforward, showing that thousands of dollars can be saved each year. However, there are a number of factors to consider, including the state of the vehicle running and whether people mainly use home or public charging systems.

In October 2021, the Anderson Economic Group released a report comparing the cost of fuel vehicles with electric vehicles and concluded that electric vehicles may be more expensive than fuel vehicles. However, in compiling the report, the Anderson Group used data from most electric vehicles that use commercial charging stations to charge. The group also increases hidden costs, such as the time it takes to recharge. In some cases, using public charging piles costs three times as much as charging at home.

Charging costs and fuel savings will depend on what kind of charger the driver uses. According to Travel and Leisure, the Level 1 charger takes 24 hours to charge the electric car; they are the slowest chargers, but also the cheapest. The Level 2Mel, the most popular charger, offers a range of about 28 miles in an hour, with prices ranging from $1 to $5 per hour, depending on the state. The Level 3 quick charger is the most expensive, but it allows electric cars to reach 80% of their power in an hour, costing $10 to $30.

The cost of Tesla's super charger is also difficult to estimate because of factors such as local electricity prices and the size of car batteries. Depending on the charging cost calculator provided by Impact Investor, a charge for Model 3, Model Y or Model S can cost between $10 and $20 for most people. At the same time, gasoline prices vary from state to state. Finder reported in April 2022 that it costs about $109 to fuel the Ram 2500, $79 for the Jeep Grand Cherokee or Toyota 4Runner, and $45 or less for the Honda Civic, Toyota Carola, Mazda CX-30 or Honda CR-V.

In the United States, electricity tariffs vary widely from city to state, and prices have been increasing due to a variety of factors, including inflation and the economic slowdown during the recovery after the pandemic. CNBC reported in March 2022 that electricity bills in some American cities have been rising at a rate similar to that of gasoline; however, when it comes to fuel costs, the savings offered by electric vehicles are still huge. Although gasoline prices are likely to fall in the coming months, the operating price of electric vehicles may eventually not exceed the cost of conventional cars, the report said.

Choose Energy ranks Hawaii, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and California as the top five states with the highest energy prices. California's electricity bill increased by 13.6% from February 2021 to February 2022, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Illinois grew by 14.5%, compared with 14.9% in New Hampshire and 16.7% in Connecticut. In the past year or so, almost all states have seen an increase in energy bills, although not all have reached such dramatic levels.

In other words, although energy prices in the United States are rising across the board, gasoline prices are also rising. In the United States, though, owning an electric car is likely to save a lot on fuel costs compared to owning a gasoline car. But the exact savings people see will be based in part on which part of the country they live in, their current electricity prices, and the electricity prices they will face in the coming months and years.

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版权声明:cnBeta 发表于 2022-06-03 11:22。
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