数十人热死小鸟都热晕 热浪炙烤印度

当你正走在路上,突然被几只从天而降的小鸟砸中,是什么感受?这不是电影中的画面,而是真实地发生在近日受热浪侵袭的印度,“每天都有数十只小鸟被热晕,甚至脱水坠亡”。

数十人热死小鸟都热晕 热浪炙烤印度

戈达德地球观测系统模型记录的4月27日世界局地气温,可见南亚次大陆被热浪笼罩。图片来源:美国航天局(NASA)地球观测网站

3月中旬以来,热浪持续笼罩南亚次大陆,已致近百人丧生,数亿人受到影响。至于引发热浪的原因,专家将“元凶”指向了全球气候变暖。

南亚:122年一遇热浪侵袭印度 巴基斯坦经历“没有春天的一年”

4月2日,印度气象局表示,该国3月的平均最高气温达到33.1℃,创下122年来的新高。根据该部门的最新数据,印度西北部和中部4月的平均最高气温更是达到了35.9℃和37.78℃,两地均遭遇了122年来的“最热4月”。

欧洲航天局的网站还显示,根据“哥白尼哨兵3号”卫星的数据,印度西北部多地的地表温度在4月底一度接近55℃,局地甚至超过了60℃。

在印度西部的古吉拉特邦,当地兽医和动物救援人员称,由于酷暑导致水源干涸,每天都有数十只脱水的鸟从天上坠落。

当地一家动物医院的医生表示,他们连日来都在向这些小鸟喂食维生素片,并朝它们嘴里注射水,过去几周已经有数千只鸟得到救治。

不仅如此,印度多地的夜间气温近期都没有降到30℃以下,专家表示,这可能是致命的,因为人的身体状况将不能从白天的高温中恢复。

美国哥伦比亚广播公司(CBS)在报道中指出,由于南亚地区的高温天气通常是从6月开始,而此次热浪远早于同期,这让当地民众和政府措手不及。截至目前,印度至少有25人因热浪丧生,实际数字预计会更高。

在印度的邻国巴基斯坦,近日也出现了类似的极端高温天气。巴气象部门表示,该国大部分地区白天的温度可能比正常温度高出5℃到8℃。该部门警告称,在一些山区,异常高温还会加速冰川融化,进而引发山洪。

截至目前,巴基斯坦已报告有65人在这波热浪中丧生。巴气候变化部长雷曼在一份声明中说:“这是几十年来,巴基斯坦人第一次经历没有春天的一年。”

大规模停电、列车停运 全球粮价或被推高

持续的热浪还产生了严重的连锁反应。美国VOX新闻网指出,极端高温最严重的影响,还是落在了最贫困人群身上,他们没有足够的水,更别提使用空调和电扇。

对于那些有条件使用人工制冷的人来说,情况也不容乐观。目前,由于激增的电力需求和电网压力,已经导致印度三分之二的家庭停电。报道称,人们在最需要制冷的时候,却无电可用。

CBS还指出,由于印度70%的电力都来自火电厂,为了给更多运煤列车让路,该国已经取消了数百列客运列车,交通系统正面临严峻考验。

炎热的天气还加重了尘埃和臭氧污染,导致南亚地区主要城市的空气污染指数激增。

更让人担忧的是,小麦生产也正在受到威胁。在印度,约60%的劳动力都在从事农业,其中大部分为户外工作。目前,印度正值小麦收获季节,数百万人面临着在危险天气下工作还是放弃生计的艰难抉择。

美国彭博社指出,俄乌冲突爆发后,印度是少数有能力缓解全球小麦短缺的粮食生产国之一,但当地收成正受极端热浪冲击。知情人士称,为保国内供应,印度政府正就限制国内小麦出口进行商议。

印度政策研究中心资深研究员戴莫达伦警告,因为这场热浪,印度恐怕无法弥补俄乌冲突造成的小麦供应缺口。

有分析称,本已呈上涨趋势的全球粮价,恐进一步被推高。

气候变暖是“元凶”? 专家:人类将经历更严重高温天气

对于南亚地区来说,极端高温天气并不少见。不过,目前的热浪以其开始时间早、覆盖范围广和严重程度,引发了关注。

美国VOX新闻网介绍称,热浪源于南亚次大陆上空形成的高气压系统。这一系统在压缩云层的同时,也在对空气进行压缩和加热。如果上空没有云层,阳光就会直射到地面上,带走原本有助于冷却空气的水分。随着压力增加,太阳持续炙烤地面,热浪随之形成。

印度气象部门官员莫哈帕特拉表示,降水减少是造成热浪的关键因素之一,印度西北部3月的降雨量减少了约89%,而4月更是减少了近83%。他还称,当地5月也将继续经历高于正常温度的天气。

科学家们则将“元凶”指向了全球气候变暖。

CBS援引气象科学家米什拉的话说,“毫无疑问,气候变化在其中(热浪)发挥了作用,尽管我们还必须考虑其他因素。”

米什拉表示,人类将在未来20到30年经历更严重的极端高温天气,最近发生在印度的热浪只是一个“缩影”。他进一步指出:“毫无疑问,未来热浪将更频繁地发生,持续时间更长,覆盖印度次大陆的更大区域……将影响水资源供应、农业、商业和能源需求。”

报道还援引印度地球科学部的一份报告称,到21世纪中叶,该国夏季热浪的平均频率将增加到每年大约2.5次,到本世纪末将进一步增加到大约3次。

美国VOX新闻网也指出,科学家们早就警告,更频繁、更极端的热浪是全球平均气温上升的最直接后果之一。

而对于热浪的威胁,VOX认为,目前尚无快速或简单的解决办法,因为气候变化是一个酝酿了一个多世纪的长期问题,光是调整城市建设和经济结构,就需要花费几十年甚至更久。(完)

The world local temperature recorded by the Goddard Earth observing system model on April 27 shows that the South Asian subcontinent is shrouded by a heat wave. Photo: NASA Earth observation website

Since mid-March, the heat wave has continued to hang over the South Asian subcontinent, killing nearly 100 people and affecting hundreds of millions of people. As for the cause of the heat wave, experts point the "culprit" to global warming.

South Asia: a year without spring when a heatwave hit India and Pakistan in 122

On April 2, the Indian Meteorological Agency said that the country's average highest temperature in March reached 33.1 degrees Celsius, the highest in 122 years. According to the latest data from the department, the average maximum temperatures in northwest and central India reached 35.9 ℃ and 37.78 ℃ in April, both of which experienced the "hottest April" in 122 years.

According to the Copernicus Sentinel 3 satellite, the surface temperature in many parts of northwestern India was close to 55 ℃ at the end of April and even exceeded 60 ℃, according to the European Space Agency's website.

In the western Indian state of Gujarat, local veterinarians and animal rescuers say dozens of dehydrated birds fall from the sky every day as the heat dries up the water.

Doctors at a local animal hospital say they have been feeding the birds vitamins and injecting water into their mouths for days, and thousands of birds have been treated in the past few weeks.

Not only that, nocturnal temperatures in many parts of India have not recently fallen below 30 degrees Celsius, which experts say can be fatal because people's health will not recover from daytime temperatures.

CBS in the United States pointed out in a report that because the hot weather in South Asia usually begins in June, and the heat wave is much earlier than the same period, it caught local people and governments off guard. So far, at least 25 people have been killed in the heat wave in India, and the actual number is expected to be even higher.

Similar extreme high temperatures have occurred in India's neighboring Pakistan in recent days. Pakistan's meteorological department said that daytime temperatures in most parts of the country may be 5 ℃ to 8 ℃ higher than normal. In some mountainous areas, unusually high temperatures can also accelerate the melting of glaciers, leading to torrents, the department warned.

So far, 65 people have been reported killed in the heatwave in Pakistan. "this is the first time in decades that Pakistanis have experienced a year without spring," Pakistani Climate change Minister Lehman said in a statement. "

Global food prices may be pushed up by massive power outages and train outages

The persistent heat wave also had a serious chain reaction. The US VOX News Network pointed out that the most serious impact of extreme heat falls on the poorest people, who do not have enough water, let alone use air conditioners and electric fans.

For those who can afford to use artificial refrigeration, the situation is not optimistic. At present, 2/3 of households in India have lost power due to surging electricity demand and grid pressure. According to the report, people have no electricity when they need cooling most.

CBS also pointed out that because 70 per cent of India's electricity comes from coal-fired power plants, the country has cancelled hundreds of passenger trains to make way for more coal trains, and the transport system is facing a severe test.

Hot weather has also exacerbated dust and ozone pollution, leading to a surge in air pollution readings in major cities in South Asia.

More worryingly, wheat production is also under threat. In India, about 60% of the workforce is engaged in agriculture, most of which are outdoor workers. At a time of wheat harvest in India, millions of people face a difficult choice between working in dangerous weather or giving up their livelihood.

After the outbreak of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, India is one of the few food producers capable of alleviating global wheat shortages, but the local harvest is being hit by extreme heat waves, according to Bloomberg. The Indian government is negotiating to limit domestic wheat exports in order to protect domestic supply, according to people familiar with the matter.

Demodalun, a senior researcher at the Indian Policy Research Center, warned that because of the heat wave, India may not be able to make up for the wheat supply gap caused by the conflict between Russia and Ukraine.

Some analysts say that global food prices, which are already on an upward trend, are likely to be pushed up further.

Is climate warming the "culprit"? Expert: human beings will experience more severe hot weather.

Extreme high temperatures are not uncommon in South Asia. However, the current heat wave has attracted attention because of its early start, wide coverage and severity.

The US VOX news network said that the heat wave originated from the high pressure system formed over the South Asian subcontinent. This system not only compresses the clouds, but also compresses and heats the air. If there are no clouds above, the sun will shine directly on the ground, taking away the moisture that would have helped to cool the air. As the pressure increases, the sun continues to scorch the ground, and heat waves form.

Indian meteorological official Mohapatra said that the reduction in precipitation is one of the key factors causing the heat wave, with rainfall in northwestern India falling by about 89% in March and nearly 83% in April. He also said that the local area will continue to experience higher-than-normal temperatures in May.

Scientists point the "culprit" to global warming.

"there is no doubt that climate change plays a role, although we have to consider other factors," CBS quoted Mishra, a meteorological scientist, as saying.

Mishra said that mankind will experience more severe extreme hot weather in the next 20 to 30 years, and the recent heat wave in India is just a "microcosm". He further pointed out: "there is no doubt that in the future heat waves will occur more frequently, last longer, and cover a larger area of the Indian subcontinent." It will affect water supply, agriculture, commerce and energy demand. "

The report also quoted a report from India's Ministry of Geosciences as saying that by the middle of the 21st century, the average frequency of summer heat waves in the country will increase to about 2.5 per year, and will further increase to about 3 by the end of the century.

The US VOX news network also pointed out that scientists have long warned that more frequent and extreme heat waves are one of the most direct consequences of rising global average temperatures.

As for the threat of heat wave, VOX believes that there is no quick or easy solution, because climate change is a long-term problem that has been brewing for more than a century, and it will take decades or more to adjust urban construction and economic structure alone. (end)

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