**Kernel Convolution (kervolution)**

Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have enabled the state-of-the-art performance in many computer vision tasks. However, little effort has been devoted to establishing convolution in non-linear space. Existing works mainly leverage on the activation layers, which can only provide point-wise non-linearity. To solve this problem, a new operation, kervolution (kernel convolution), is introduced to approximate complex behaviors of human perception systems leveraging on the kernel trick. It generalizes convolution, enhances the model capacity, and captures higher order interactions of features, via patch-wise kernel functions, but without introducing additional parameters. Extensive experiments show that kervolutional neural networks (KNN) achieve higher accuracy and faster convergence than baseline CNN. …

We introduce hyperbolic attention networks to endow neural networks with enough capacity to match the complexity of data with hierarchical and power-law structure. A few recent approaches have successfully demonstrated the benefits of imposing hyperbolic geometry on the parameters of shallow networks. We extend this line of work by imposing hyperbolic geometry on the activations of neural networks. This allows us to exploit hyperbolic geometry to reason about embeddings produced by deep networks. We achieve this by re-expressing the ubiquitous mechanism of soft attention in terms of operations defined for hyperboloid and Klein models. Our method shows improvements in terms of generalization on neural machine translation, learning on graphs and visual question answering tasks while keeping the neural representations compact. …

**Recurrent Predictive State Policy Network (RPSP)**

We introduce Recurrent Predictive State Policy (RPSP) networks, a recurrent architecture that brings insights from predictive state representations to reinforcement learning in partially observable environments. Predictive state policy networks consist of a recursive filter, which keeps track of a belief about the state of the environment, and a reactive policy that directly maps beliefs to actions, to maximize the cumulative reward. The recursive filter leverages predictive state representations (PSRs) (Rosencrantz and Gordon, 2004; Sun et al., 2016) by modeling predictive state– a prediction of the distribution of future observations conditioned on history and future actions. This representation gives rise to a rich class of statistically consistent algorithms (Hefny et al., 2018) to initialize the recursive filter. Predictive state serves as an equivalent representation of a belief state. Therefore, the policy component of the RPSP-network can be purely reactive, simplifying training while still allowing optimal behaviour. Moreover, we use the PSR interpretation during training as well, by incorporating prediction error in the loss function. The entire network (recursive filter and reactive policy) is still differentiable and can be trained using gradient based methods. We optimize our policy using a combination of policy gradient based on rewards (Williams, 1992) and gradient descent based on prediction error. We show the efficacy of RPSP-networks under partial observability on a set of robotic control tasks from OpenAI Gym. We empirically show that RPSP-networks perform well compared with memory-preserving networks such as GRUs, as well as finite memory models, being the overall best performing method. …

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