This tutorial shows the installation of an Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic Beaver) web hosting server with Apache 2.4, Postfix, Dovecot, Bind and PureFTPD to prepare it for the installation of ISPConfig 3.1
. The resulting system will provide a Web, Mail, Mailinglist, DNS and FTP Server.
ISPConfig is a web hosting control panel that allows you to configure the following services through a web browser: Apache or Nginx web server, Postfix mail server, Courier or Dovecot IMAP/POP3 server, MySQL, BIND or MyDNS nameserver, PureFTPd, SpamAssassin, ClamAV, and many more. This setup covers the installation of Apache (instead of Nginx), BIND (instead of MyDNS), and Dovecot (instead of Courier).
1. Preliminary Note
In this tutorial, I use the hostname server1.example.com
with the IP address 192.168.1.100
and the gateway 192.168.1.1
These settings might differ for you, so you have to replace them where appropriate. Before proceeding further you need to have a basic minimal installation of Ubuntu 18.04 as explained in the tutorial.
The commands in this tutorial have to be run with root permissions. To avoid adding sudo in front of each command, you'll have to become root user by running:
before you proceed.
2. Edit /etc/apt/sources.list And Update Your Linux Installation
. Comment out or remove the installation CD from the file and make sure that the universe
repositories are enabled. It should look like this afterwards:
# # deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 18.04 LTS _Bionic Beaver_ - Release amd64 (20180425.1)]/ bionic main restricted #deb cdrom:[Ubuntu-Server 18.04 LTS _Bionic Beaver_ - Release amd64 (20180425.1)]/ bionic main restricted # See http://help.ubuntu.com/community/UpgradeNotes for how to upgrade to # newer versions of the distribution. deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted # deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted ## Major bug fix updates produced after the final release of the ## distribution. deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted # deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted ## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu ## team. Also, please note that software in universe WILL NOT receive any ## review or updates from the Ubuntu security team. deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic universe # deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic universe deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates universe # deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates universe ## N.B. software from this repository is ENTIRELY UNSUPPORTED by the Ubuntu ## team, and may not be under a free licence. Please satisfy yourself as to ## your rights to use the software. Also, please note that software in ## multiverse WILL NOT receive any review or updates from the Ubuntu ## security team. deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic multiverse # deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic multiverse deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates multiverse # deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates multiverse ## N.B. software from this repository may not have been tested as ## extensively as that contained in the main release, although it includes ## newer versions of some applications which may provide useful features. ## Also, please note that software in backports WILL NOT receive any review ## or updates from the Ubuntu security team. deb http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse # deb-src http://de.archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse ## Uncomment the following two lines to add software from Canonical's ## 'partner' repository. ## This software is not part of Ubuntu, but is offered by Canonical and the ## respective vendors as a service to Ubuntu users. # deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu bionic partner # deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu bionic partner deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security main restricted # deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security main restricted deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security universe # deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security universe deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security multiverse # deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security multiverse
to update the apt package database and
to install the latest updates (if there are any). If you see that a new kernel gets installed as part of the updates, you should reboot the system afterwards:
3. Change the Default Shell
is a symlink to /bin/dash
, however we need /bin/bash
, not /bin/dash
. Therefore, we do this:
Use dash as the default system shell (/bin/sh)?
If you don't do this, the ISPConfig installation will fail.
4. Disable AppArmor
AppArmor is a security extension (similar to SELinux) that should provide extended security. In my opinion, you don't need it to configure a secure system, and it usually causes more problems than advantages (think of it after you have done a week of trouble-shooting because some service wasn't working as expected, and then you find out that everything was ok, only AppArmor was causing the problem). Therefore, I disable it (this is a must if you want to install ISPConfig later on).
We can disable it like this:
service apparmor stop
update-rc.d -f apparmor remove
apt-get remove apparmor apparmor-utils
5. Synchronize the System Clock
It is a good idea to synchronize the system clock with an NTP ( n
rotocol) server over the Internet when you run a physical server. In case you run a virtual server then you should skip this step. Just run
apt-get -y install ntp
and your system time will always be in sync.
6. Install Postfix, Dovecot, MariaDB, rkhunter, and binutils
For installing postfix, we need to ensure that sendmail is not installed and running. To stop and remove sendmail run this command:
service sendmail stop; update-rc.d -f sendmail remove
The error message:
Failed to stop sendmail.service: Unit sendmail.service not loaded.
Is ok, it just means that sendmail was not installed, so there was nothing to be removed.
Now we can install Postfix, Dovecot, MariaDB (as MySQL replacement), rkhunter, and binutils with a single command:
apt-get -y install postfix postfix-mysql postfix-doc mariadb-client mariadb-server openssl getmail4 rkhunter binutils dovecot-imapd dovecot-pop3d dovecot-mysql dovecot-sieve dovecot-lmtpd sudo
You will be asked the following questions:
General type of mail configuration: <-- Internet Site
System mail name:
It is important that you use a subdomain as "system mail name" like server1.example.com or server1.yourdomain.com and not a domain that you want to use as email domain (e.g. yourdomain.tld) later.
Next, open the TLS/SSL and submission ports in Postfix:
Uncomment the submission
sections as follows - add the line -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject
to both sections and leave everything thereafter commented:
[...] submission inet n - y - - smtpd -o syslog_name=postfix/submission -o smtpd_tls_security_level=encrypt -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject # -o smtpd_reject_unlisted_recipient=no # -o smtpd_client_restrictions=$mua_client_restrictions # -o smtpd_helo_restrictions=$mua_helo_restrictions # -o smtpd_sender_restrictions=$mua_sender_restrictions # -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject # -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING smtps inet n - y - - smtpd -o syslog_name=postfix/smtps -o smtpd_tls_wrappermode=yes -o smtpd_sasl_auth_enable=yes -o smtpd_client_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject # -o smtpd_reject_unlisted_recipient=no # -o smtpd_client_restrictions=$mua_client_restrictions # -o smtpd_helo_restrictions=$mua_helo_restrictions # -o smtpd_sender_restrictions=$mua_sender_restrictions # -o smtpd_recipient_restrictions=permit_sasl_authenticated,reject # -o milter_macro_daemon_name=ORIGINATING [...]
NOTE:The whitespaces in front of the "-o .... " lines are important!
Restart Postfix afterward:
service postfix restart
We want MySQL to listen on all interfaces, not just localhost. Therefore, we edit /etc/mysql/mariadb.conf.d/50-server.cnf
and comment out the line bind-address = 127.0.0.1
[...] # Instead of skip-networking the default is now to listen only on # localhost which is more compatible and is not less secure. #bind-address = 127.0.0.1
Now we set a root password in MariaDB. Run:
You will be asked these questions:
Enter current password for root (enter for none): <-- press enter
Set root password? [Y/n] <-- y
New password: <-- Enter the new MariaDB root password here
Re-enter new password: <-- Repeat the password
Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] <-- y
Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] <-- y
Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n]
Set the password authentication method in MariaDB to native so we can use PHPMyAdmin later to connect as root user:
echo "update mysql.user set plugin = 'mysql_native_password' where user='root';" | mysql -u root
Edit the file /etc/mysql/debian.cnf and set the MYSQL / MariaDB root password there twice in the rows that start with password.
The MySQL root password that needs to be added is shown in read, in this example the password is "howtoforge".
# Automatically generated for Debian scripts. DO NOT TOUCH!
host = localhost
user = root
password = howtoforge
socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
host = localhost
user = root
password = howtoforge
socket = /var/run/mysqld/mysqld.sock
basedir = /usr
Then we restart MariaDB:
service mysql restart
Now check that networking is enabled. Run
netstat -tap | grep mysql
The output should look like this:
[email protected]:~# netstat -tap | grep mysql
tcp6 0 0 [::]:mysql [::]:* LISTEN 30591/mysqld
7. Install Amavisd-new, SpamAssassin, and Clamav
To install amavisd-new, SpamAssassin, and ClamAV, we run
apt-get -y install amavisd-new spamassassin clamav clamav-daemon unzip bzip2 arj nomarch lzop cabextract apt-listchanges libnet-ldap-perl libauthen-sasl-perl clamav-docs daemon libio-string-perl libio-socket-ssl-perl libnet-ident-perl zip libnet-dns-perl postgrey
The ISPConfig 3 setup uses amavisd which loads the SpamAssassin filter library internally, so we can stop SpamAssassin to free up some RAM:
service spamassassin stop
update-rc.d -f spamassassin remove
To start ClamAV use:
service clamav-daemon start
The following error can be ignored on the first run of freshclam.
ERROR: /var/log/clamav/freshclam.log is locked by another process
ERROR: Problem with internal logger (UpdateLogFile = /var/log/clamav/freshclam.log).
The amavisd-new program has currently a bug in Ubuntu 18.04 which prevents that emails get signed with Dkim correctly. Run the following commands to patch amavisd-new.
cp -pf amavisd-new amavisd-new_bak
patch < /tmp/ubuntu-amavisd-new-2.11.patch
In case you get an error for thelast 'patch' command, then Ubuntu has probably fixed the issue in the meantime, so it should be safe to ignore that error then.
7.1 Install Metronome XMPP Server (optional)
The Metronome XMPP Server provides an XMPP chat server. This step is optional, if you do not need a chat server, then you can skip this step. No other ISPConfig functions depend on this software.
Install the following packages with apt.
apt-get -y install git lua5.1 liblua5.1-0-dev lua-filesystem libidn11-dev libssl-dev lua-zlib lua-expat lua-event lua-bitop lua-socket lua-sec luarocks luarocks
luarocks install lpc
Add a shell user for Metronome.
adduser --no-create-home --disabled-login --gecos 'Metronome' metronome
Download Metronome to the /opt directory and compile it.
cd /opt; git clone https://github.com/maranda/metronome.git metronome
cd ./metronome; ./configure --ostype=debian --prefix=/usr
Metronome has now be installed to /opt/metronome.