最近，英国东安格利亚大学和Quadram生物科学研究所就再次在小鼠身上证明这一点是可行的，即 移植年轻小鼠的粪便微生物 。虽然过程听着不太友好，但效果是真的不错。
研究选取了年轻小鼠和年老小鼠分别互相递送对方的微生物。以年轻移植老年组为例，研究者首先需要获取年轻小鼠的粪便，之后制成粪便浆液，鉴于年老小鼠不会主动喝“粪水”，研究者都是 通过灌胃的方式将粪便制剂送到小鼠体内 。
首先接受粪便移植的老年小鼠，大脑中的慢性炎症水平下降了，而原本过度激活的小胶质细胞也变得安分下来，这 或许对缓解神经炎症造成的病变有积极影响 。
此外， 年老小鼠视网膜的功能也会变得更好 ，与视觉色素相关的蛋白水平逐渐恢复到了与年轻小鼠一样的水平。根据视网膜样本的分析，年老小鼠的多种促炎因子减少了，而功能性视觉蛋白RPE65的表达会显著增长。
而影响更直接的当属肠道功能了， 移植年轻小鼠的微生物可以让小鼠的肠道上皮屏障完整性更好，减少一些炎症性和破坏性的分子渗透到血液当中 。这样能直接让整个血液中各种促炎细胞因子水平下降，由于血管网络遍布全身，可以说年老小鼠整体的衰老状态都得到了逆转。
But in the future, there may be another way to fight aging that sounds disgusting, but it may work well:移植年轻者的粪便微生物. Do you dare to try?
This idea of anti-aging with the help of young individuals has been tested in many animal experiments, such as feeding fruit flies with young animal homogenate can increase their lifespan; or transplanting young microbes into African mackerel can also improve the behavioral decline and prolong the lifespan of old mackerel.
Recently, the University of East Anglia and the Quadram Institute of Biosciences have once again proved this to be feasible in mice, that is, Transplant fecal microorganisms of young mice . Although the process sounds unfriendly, the effect is really good.
When older mice received microbes from young mice, many of the aging markers associated with the intestines, eyes and brain were reversed.
According to the researchers’ paper published in the journal Microbiome, the microbiota in the intestinal tract is closely related to individual health, especially in maintaining the intestinal barrier and immune system function. With agingChanges in the structure and function of microbial community will cause immune abnormalities such as inflammation and metabolic dysfunction.
In addition to the intestines, the organs most affected by this inflammation includeBrain. This is due to complex neural communication between the gut and brain, problems with intestinal microbes, and the brain is more likely to be affected by neuroinflammation and functional decline.
When the fecal microorganisms of young individuals were transplanted, the aging markers of multiple organs in mice were reversed, while in turn, many indexes of young individuals deteriorated rapidly after transplanting fecal microorganisms of older individuals (Photo Source: reference )
The study selected young and old mice to deliver each other’s microbes. Taking the young and old transplant group as an example, the researchers first need to obtain the feces of young mice, and then make them into fecal serum. in view of the fact that old mice do not take the initiative to drink “fecal water”, the researchers all do. PassThe fecal preparation was delivered to the mouse by intragastric administration. .
The recipients all took a large amount of antibiotics in advance and made a big cleaning of the original microbes in the intestinal tract to ensure that the transplanted microflora would occupy the main body.
In the elderly mice that first received fecal transplantation, the level of chronic inflammation in the brain decreased, and the previously overactivated microglia became calm. It may have a positive effect on alleviating the pathological changes caused by neuroinflammation. .
In addition The function of the retina of the old mice will also become better. The level of protein associated with visual pigment gradually returned to the same level as that of young mice. According to the analysis of retinal samples, a variety of pro-inflammatory factors decreased in older mice, while the expression of functional visual protein RPE65 increased significantly.
And the more direct impact is the intestinal function. Transplanting microorganisms from young mice can improve the integrity of intestinal epithelial barrier and reduce the infiltration of inflammatory and destructive molecules into the bloodstream. . This can directly reduce the level of various pro-inflammatory cytokines in the whole blood. because the vascular network is spread all over the body, it can be said that the aging state of the elderly mice as a whole has been reversed.
According to the study, microbes in mice of different ages may produce different metabolites in the process of breaking down diet, thus affecting cell function. This similar mechanism is likely to exist in the human body.
In fact, some studies have begun to design oral fecal microbial capsules to help improve insulin sensitivity in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. In the future, we may be able to return to youth to some extent by taking similar fecal extracts from young people.
That sounds a little exciting!