HTML – 容器标签:表格、列表和div等

“结构容器”标签是飞哥自己给的一个定义,意思就是这些标签:主要用做:

  • 定义文档结构
  • 作为其他标签的容器

^_^,大家将就理解一下吧!

列表(List)

有序列表

<ol> <!–ordered list–> <li>有序列表</li> <!–list item–> <li>无序列表</li> </ol>

无序列表

<ul> <!–unordered list–> <li>有序列表</li> <!–list item–> <li>无序列表</li> </ul>

列表还可以:

嵌套

<ol> <li>有序列表 <ul> <li>我是嵌套项-1</li> <li>我是嵌套项-1</li> </ul> </li> <li>无序列表</li> </ol>

表格(table)

看一下这个表格,3行2列

<!– row –>

<!–table head–>

<!–table data cell–>

h1 h2
row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2
row 2, cell 1 row 2, cell 2

表格的难点在于它的: #### #### 合并单元格 合并,是借用的MS Office中的表述,严格来讲,应该是“跨越”“延伸”(span),可以在单元格(th/td)中使用属性: * colspan:横向(column列)合并 * rowspan:纵向(row行)合并

h1h2
row 1, cell 1 row 1, cell 2
row 2, cell 2

纵向合并理解起来稍稍有点绕,_(__演示__)_
表格在早期被广泛用于页面布局,但在CSS兴起之后逐渐被div所取代。
###
### div和span
div可以理解为一个“块”,页面中的一大块。比如我们一个网页,可以被分为这么几大块:
* 页头:包含了图片logo和导航条
* 正文:放入标题、段落、列表、表格等内容
* 页脚:友情链接等
我们就可以用三个div予以表示:
<div>页头</div> <div>正文</div> <div>页脚</div>
然后每个div中再各自放入相应的元素。 @想一想@
:为什么要这样做?
div的一个重要特点是:一个div(默认)就会占一行,不管这个div里面的元素/内容有宽。
经常和它相对比的就是span,比如:
<span>我又干啥伤天害理的事了?</span> <span>一脸懵逼</span> <span>。原来他又看到了我以前的一篇文章《为什么我不做培训》(找不到了,难道被我无耻的删了?^_^),然后我马上就想起来了,那篇文章里我写了我的理由,大概就是“怕误人子弟,怕同学们缴了钱学不会……”他们现在在调侃他们也学不会,我知道他们在和我开玩笑,但啪啪打脸的赶脚,啧啧! </span>
其特点是:一个span的长度由其中的内容决定,有多长就是多长;多个span连接,不足一行的宽度就在一行中拼接,超出一行的宽度就自动换行。 (对比演示)
具有div这种特征的元素就被称之为 块级元素
,相对的,具有span这种特征的元素就被称之为 流元素

这在以后学习CSS中非常有用。
###
### Html5语义标签
大量使用div,导致的一个问题就是:整页都是div,眼睛都看花了……o(╯□╰)o
所以,Html5推出了一批(有特定含义的)语义标签,常用的有:
* header:页头
* nav:导航栏
* main:页面主要部分
* footer:页脚
* article:文章
* section:区域
* aside:侧边栏
* details:细节
* mark:标注
* ……
更多可参考: MDN:HTML5 sections_and_outlines
####
#### 语义化
从浏览器的结果来看,上述html5语义标签和div或span相比,并没有什么区别。
但HTML5提倡使用有语义的标签,而不是div这种(没有任何含义的)无语义的标签,为什么呢?
* 提高代码的可读性。再次强调:代码是写给人看的!开发人员读这些html代码的时候会更舒服一些,这很重要。
* 语义化标签还可以给浏览器以外的:
1. 搜索引擎爬虫用,有助于SEO
2. 其他设备使用,比如盲人阅读器,这时候告诉这一段内容是导航、是文章、是侧边栏……就非常有用
标签语义化只是 HTML5语义化
的一部分,后面我们还要学习更多的语义化属性,如alt/title等 https://github.com/hdfgfgh546…
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