新特性解读 | 数组范围遍历功能

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新特性解读 | 数组范围遍历功能

作者:杨涛涛

资深数据库专家,专研 MySQL 十余年。擅长 MySQL、PostgreSQL、MongoDB 等开源数据库相关的备份恢复、SQL 调优、监控运维、高可用架构设计等。目前任职于爱可生,为各大运营商及银行金融企业提供 MySQL 相关技术支持、MySQL 相关课程培训等工作。

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*爱可生开源社区出品,原创内容未经授权不得随意使用,转载请联系小编并注明来源。

大家都知道,MySQL 从 5.7 开始,增加了新的数据类型:JSON。

JSON 类型的出现,弥补了 MySQL 长期以来相比其他关系型数据库的非标准化特性略势,比如可以用 JSON 来实现类似字典、数组等类型。以及之后大量针对 JSON 类型字串的相关遍历方法与函数。

比如对数组来说,简单的遍历路径为 “$[数组小标]” 或者 “$[*]” 来一次性遍历所有元素。MySQL 8.0 又新增了对于数组元素的范围遍历,比如 “$[m to n]”,表示遍历下标为 m 到 n 的元素。

举个例子,以下 JSON 字串(随便找张表 explain format=json 的结果):

# javascript
set @json_str1 = '{
"query_block": {
"table": {
"filtered": "100.00",
"cost_info": {
"eval_cost": "898504.10",
"read_cost": "17457.25",
"prefix_cost": "915961.35",
"data_read_per_join": "137M"
},
"table_name": "t1",
"access_type": "ALL",
"used_columns": [
"id",
"r1",
"r2",
"r3",
"r4",
"r5",
"r6",
"r7",
"r8"
],
"rows_examined_per_scan": 8985041,
"rows_produced_per_join": 8985041
},
"cost_info": {
"query_cost": "915961.35"
},
"select_id": 1
}
}';

其中 key 为 used_columns 对应的值就是一个数组,现在我把这个数据遍历出来,并且生成以下结果:

# javascript
["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5", "r6", "r7", "r8"]
["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5", "r6", "r7"]
["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5", "r6"]
["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5"]
["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4"]
["id", "r1", "r2", "r3"]
["id", "r1", "r2"]
["id", "r1"]
["id"]

先把这个键对应的值赋给一个变量:

mysql> select json_extract(@json_str1,"$.query_block.table.used_columns") into @json_array1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

接下来写个传统 PATH 遍历数据的存储过程来实现以上这个结果:

DELIMITER $$
USE `ytt`$$
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS `sp_print_json_array_sample`$$
CREATE DEFINER=`root`@`%` PROCEDURE `sp_print_json_array_sample`(
IN f_str1 JSON
)
BEGIN
DECLARE v_tmp_length TINYINT UNSIGNED DEFAULT 0;
DECLARE i TINYINT UNSIGNED DEFAULT 0;
SET v_tmp_length = JSON_LENGTH(f_str1);
SET i = v_tmp_length;
SET @v_tmp_result = f_str1;
DROP TEMPORARY TABLE IF EXISTS tmp;
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE IF NOT EXISTS tmp(str1 JSON);
WHILE i > 0
DO
SET i = i - 1;
SET @stmt = CONCAT('select json_remove(@v_tmp_result,"$[',i,']") into @v_tmp_result');
INSERT INTO tmp VALUES (@v_tmp_result);
PREPARE s1 FROM @stmt;
EXECUTE s1;
END WHILE;
DROP PREPARE s1;
SET @v_stmt = NULL;
SET @v_tmp_result = NULL;
SELECT * FROM tmp;
END$$
DELIMITER ;

调用下这个存储过程:

mysql> call sp_print_json_array_sample(@json_array1);
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| str1                                                   |
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| ["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5", "r6", "r7", "r8"] |
| ["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5", "r6", "r7"]       |
| ["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5", "r6"]             |
| ["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5"]                   |
| ["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4"]                         |
| ["id", "r1", "r2", "r3"]                               |
| ["id", "r1", "r2"]                                     |
| ["id", "r1"]                                           |
| ["id"]                                                 |
+--------------------------------------------------------+
9 rows in set (0.01 sec)
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)

那在 MySQL 8.0 下,可以直接把这个存储过程给优化掉,简化的写法如下:

DELIMITER $$
USE `ytt`$$
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS `sp_print_json_array_sample`$$
CREATE DEFINER=`root`@`%` PROCEDURE `sp_print_json_array_sample`(
IN f_str1 JSON
)
BEGIN
DECLARE v_tmp_length TINYINT UNSIGNED DEFAULT 0;
DECLARE i TINYINT UNSIGNED DEFAULT 0;
SET v_tmp_length = JSON_LENGTH(f_str1);
SET i = v_tmp_length;
DROP TEMPORARY TABLE IF EXISTS tmp;
CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE IF NOT EXISTS tmp(str1 JSON);
WHILE i > 0
DO
SET i = i - 1;
SET @stmt = CONCAT(' insert into tmp select json_extract(''',f_str1,''','' $[ 0 to     ',i,']'') ');
PREPARE s1 FROM @stmt;
EXECUTE s1;
END WHILE;
DROP PREPARE s1;
SET @v_stmt = NULL;
SELECT str1 AS array_result FROM tmp;
END$$
DELIMITER ;

调用结果一样:

mysql> call sp_print_json_array_sample(@json_array1);
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| array_result                                           |
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| ["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5", "r6", "r7", "r8"] |
| ["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5", "r6", "r7"]       |
| ["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5", "r6"]             |
| ["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4", "r5"]                   |
| ["id", "r1", "r2", "r3", "r4"]                         |
| ["id", "r1", "r2", "r3"]                               |
| ["id", "r1", "r2"]                                     |
| ["id", "r1"]                                           |
| ["id"]                                                 |
+--------------------------------------------------------+
9 rows in set (0.00 sec)
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

其中路径 “$[m to n]” , n 也可以是保留字 last,代表最后一个下标,比如:

mysql> select json_extract(@json_array1,'$[0 to last-7]') as result;
+--------------+
| result       |
+--------------+
| ["id", "r1"] |
+--------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

总结

这里简单介绍了 MySQL 8.0 对于 JSON 数组的范围遍历功能,希望大家在开发过程中更加得心应手。

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新特性解读 | 数组范围遍历功能

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