手撸Mysql原生语句–多表

微信扫一扫,分享到朋友圈

手撸Mysql原生语句–多表

在开始之前,我们需要建立表,做建表和数据的准备的工作。

1.建表
create table department(
id int,
name varchar(20)
);
create table employee(
id int primary key auto_increment,
name varchar(20),
sex enmu('male','female') not null default = 'male',
age int,
dep_id int,
constraint fk_id foreign key(dep_id) references department(id),
);
2.插入数据
insert into department values
(200,'技术'),
(201,'人力资源'),
(202,'销售'),
(203,'运营');
insert into employee (name,sex,age,dep_id)values
('egon','male',18,200),
('alex','female',48,201),
('wupeiqi','male',38,201),
('yuanhao','female',28,202),
('liwenzhou','male',18,200),
('jingliyang','female',18,204);
# 查看表结构
desc department;
desc employee;
# 查看我们插入的数据
select * from department;
select * from employee;

多表的查询,我们主要是分为两种查询,这两种查询分别是多表连接查询和子查询两种情况。

多表连接查询

1.交叉连接:不适用任何匹配条件。生成笛卡尔积。

select * from employee,department;

2.内连接

# 找两张表共有部分,相当于利用笛卡儿积结果中筛选出正确的结果。
# department没有204这个部门,因而employee表中关于204这条员工信息没有匹配出来
select employee.id,employee.name,employee.age,employee.sex,department.name from employee inner join department on employee.dep_id=department.id;
上面的sql语句等价于下面的sql语句
select employee.id,employee.name,employee.age,employee.sex,department.name from employee,department where employee.dep_id=department.id;

3.外连接之左连接:优先显示左表全部记录

# 以左表为标准,即找出所有员工信息,当然包括没有部门的员工
# 本质就是:在内连接的基础上增加左边有而右边没有的结果
select employee.id,employee.name,department.name as depart_name from employee letf join department on employee.dep_id=department.id;

4.外连接之右连接:优先显示右表全部记录

# 以右表为标准,即找出所有部门信息,包括没有员工的部门
# 本质就是:在内连接的基础上增加右边有而左边没有的结果
select employee.id,employee.name,department.name as depart_name from employee right join department on empolyee.dep_id=department.id;

5.全外连接:显示左右两个表全部的记录

select * from employee left join department on employee.dep_id = department.id
union
select * from employee right join department on employee.dep_id = department.id;
#注意 union与union all的区别:union会去掉相同的纪录

6.符合条件连接查询

# 实例1:以内连接的方式查询employee和department表,并且employee表中的age字段值必须大于25,即找出年龄大于25岁的员工以及员工所在的部门
select employee.name,department.name from employee inner join department on employee.dep_id=department.id where age > 25;
#示例2:以内连接的方式查询employee和department表,并且以age字段的升序方式显示
select employee.id,employee.name,employee.age,department.name from employee inner join department on employee.dep_id=department.id order by age asc;

子查询

# 1.子查询是将一个查询语句嵌套在另外一个查询语句中。
# 2.内层查询语句的查询结果,可以为外层查询语句提供查询条件。
#3:子查询中可以包含:IN、NOT IN、ANY、ALL、EXISTS 和 NOT EXISTS等关键字
#4:还可以包含比较运算符:= 、 !=、> 、<等

1.带IN关键字的子查询

#查询平均年龄在25岁以上的部门名
select id,name from department
where id in
(select dep_id from employee group by dep_id having avg(age) > 25);
这两个sql语句是等价的。
select department.name from employee inner join department on employee.dep_id=department.id where employee.age > (select avg(age) from employee group by dep_id);
#查看技术部员工姓名
select name from employee
where dep_id in
(select id from department where name='技术');
#查看不足1人的部门名(子查询得到的是有人的部门id)
select name from department where id not in (select distinct dep_id from employee);

2.带比较运算符的子查询

#比较运算符:=、!=、>、>=、<、<=、<>
#查询大于所有人平均年龄的员工名与年龄
mysql> select name,age from emp where age > (select avg(age) from emp);
+---------+------+
| name    | age  |
+---------+------+
| alex    | 48   |
| wupeiqi | 38   |
+---------+------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)
#查询大于部门内平均年龄的员工名、年龄
select t1.name,t1.age from emp t1
inner join
(select dep_id,avg(age) avg_age from emp group by dep_id) t2
on t1.dep_id = t2.dep_id
where t1.age > t2.avg_age;

3 带EXISTS关键字的子查询

EXISTS关字键字表示存在。在使用EXISTS关键字时,内层查询语句不返回查询的记录。

而是返回一个真假值。True或False

当返回True时,外层查询语句将进行查询;当返回值为False时,外层查询语句不进行查询

#department表中存在dept_id=203,Ture
mysql> select * from employee
->     where exists
->         (select id from department where id=200);
+----+------------+--------+------+--------+
| id | name       | sex    | age  | dep_id |
+----+------------+--------+------+--------+
|  1 | egon       | male   |   18 |    200 |
|  2 | alex       | female |   48 |    201 |
|  3 | wupeiqi    | male   |   38 |    201 |
|  4 | yuanhao    | female |   28 |    202 |
|  5 | liwenzhou  | male   |   18 |    200 |
|  6 | jingliyang | female |   18 |    204 |
+----+------------+--------+------+--------+
#department表中存在dept_id=205,False
mysql> select * from employee
->     where exists
->         (select id from department where id=204);
Empty set (0.00 sec)

微信扫一扫,分享到朋友圈

手撸Mysql原生语句–多表

InnoDB线程并发检查机制

上一篇

Chaos Mesh® 1.0 GA,让混沌工程变得简单!

下一篇

你也可能喜欢

手撸Mysql原生语句–多表

长按储存图像,分享给朋友