新特性解读 | MySQL 8.0 语句摘要功能介绍

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新特性解读 | MySQL 8.0 语句摘要功能介绍

作者:杨涛涛

资深数据库专家,专研 MySQL 十余年。擅长 MySQL、PostgreSQL、MongoDB 等开源数据库相关的备份恢复、SQL 调优、监控运维、高可用架构设计等。目前任职于爱可生,为各大运营商及银行金融企业提供 MySQL 相关技术支持、MySQL 相关课程培训等工作。

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一、背景介绍

在介绍 MySQL 8.0 的语句摘要函数之前,先来看看经典的慢日志过滤结果:

# mysqldumpslow  -s c -t 10 -g 'order by' debian-ytt1-slow.log
Reading mysql slow query log from debian-ytt1-slow.log
Count: 8  Time=10.41s (83s)  Lock=0.00s (0s)  Rows=2.0 (16), root[root]@localhost
select * from p1 where id > N order by rand() limit N
Count: 2  Time=15.06s (30s)  Lock=0.00s (0s)  Rows=2.0 (4), root[root]@localhost
select * from p1 where N order by rand() limit N
Count: 1  Time=6.35s (6s)  Lock=0.00s (0s)  Rows=2.0 (2), root[root]@localhost
select * from p1 where id >N-N order by rand() limit N

对慢日志进行过滤分析,按照执行次数排序,拿出前 10 条语句,比如第 1 条语句:

select * from p1 where id > N order by rand() limit N;

这里的 N 代表数字,也就是说无论数字多少,都可以用这条语句来代替。举个例子,下面 3 条 SQL 都可以用上面的 SQL 来代替。

select * from p1 where id > 1000 order by rand() limit 2;
select * from p1 where id > 1000 order by rand() limit 10;
select * from p1 where id > 20000 order by rand() limit 100;

用来代替这几条 SQL 的语句文本叫做 摘要文本

摘要文本提供了比较 SQL 语句不同分类的便利性。比如对于慢日志来说,用 mysqldumpslow 来分类查看慢语句结果就比直接看慢日志来的简单。

更进一步,如果语句很长,摘要文本也会很长,为了更加方便比较,MySQL 对摘要文本用哈希函数 SHA2 做了一个哈希,完了用此哈希值进行比较。这两个功能就是 MySQL 8.0 新增加的两个函数,statement_digest 和 statement_digest_text。

  • statement_digest():计算 SQL 语句的摘要哈希值
  • statement_digest_text():返回 SQL 语句对应的摘要文本。

现在来用以上两个函数来计算下上面这 3 条 SQL 的摘要。结果和慢日志过滤分析的一样,不过数字 N 变为 “?”,这 3 条语句为一个类型,摘要文本一样。

mysql> select statement_digest_text('select * from p1 where id > 1000 order by rand() limit 2') digest_text;
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
| digest_text                                                   |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
| SELECT * FROM `p1` WHERE `id` > ? ORDER BY `rand` ( ) LIMIT ? |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select statement_digest_text('select * from p1 where id > 1000 order by rand() limit 10') digest_text;
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
| digest_text                                                   |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
| SELECT * FROM `p1` WHERE `id` > ? ORDER BY `rand` ( ) LIMIT ? |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select statement_digest_text('select * from p1 where id > 20000 order by rand() limit 100') digest_text;
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
| digest_text                                                   |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
| SELECT * FROM `p1` WHERE `id` > ? ORDER BY `rand` ( ) LIMIT ? |
+---------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

对应的摘要哈希值:可以看到 3 条语句对应的摘要相同。所以在比较 3 条语句的执行次数,执行时间等指标时,可以用一个哈希值来比较。

mysql> select statement_digest('select * from p1 where id > 1000 order by rand() limit 2') digest_has;
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| digest_has                                                       |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 32744c535a56acf37beb1702573cab41eff5f14953c9b1c2b73c7f1583e3eaf0 |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select statement_digest('select * from p1 where id > 1000 order by rand() limit 10') digest_hash;
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| digest_hash                                                      |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 32744c535a56acf37beb1702573cab41eff5f14953c9b1c2b73c7f1583e3eaf0 |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select statement_digest('select * from p1 where id > 20000 order by rand() limit 100') digest_hash;
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| digest_hash                                                      |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 32744c535a56acf37beb1702573cab41eff5f14953c9b1c2b73c7f1583e3eaf0 |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

摘要文本以及摘要哈希值的一致性来自于表或者过滤字段的不变性,如果表名或者过滤字段有变化,MySQL 将会归类这些查询语句为不同的摘要。

二、 使用场景

SQL 语句摘要可以用在MySQL的各个方面,比如 性能字典里对语句的分析,查询重写插件规则改写等等。

接下来依次看下语句摘要在这两方面的使用

1. 性能字典

mysql> call sys.ps_setup_enable_consumer('statements');
+---------------------+
| summary             |
+---------------------+
| Enabled 4 consumers |
+---------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

开启后,执行几次之前的几条 SQL。

完后可以很方便的从 sys 库里分析这类语句的执行情况,包括执行次数,执行时间,扫描的记录数,锁定的时间,是否用到排序等等。

mysql> SELECT * FROM sys.`statement_analysis`
> WHERE digest = statement_digest('select * from p1 where
> id > 1000 order by rand() limit 2')\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
query: SELECT * FROM `p1` WHERE `id` > ? ORDER BY `rand` ( ) LIMIT ?
db: ytt
full_scan:
exec_count: 4
err_count: 0
warn_count: 0
total_latency: 46.08 s
max_latency: 16.26 s
avg_latency: 11.52 s
lock_latency: 595.00 us
rows_sent: 122
rows_sent_avg: 31
rows_examined: 36000126
rows_examined_avg: 9000032
rows_affected: 0
rows_affected_avg: 0
tmp_tables: 0
tmp_disk_tables: 0
rows_sorted: 122
sort_merge_passes: 0
digest: 32744c535a56acf37beb1702573cab41eff5f14953c9b1c2b73c7f1583e3eaf0
first_seen: 2020-08-17 13:34:58.676034
last_seen: 2020-08-17 13:40:02.082039
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

2. 查询重写插件

比如要阻止对表 p1 通过字段 r1 的删除动作,可以用查询重写插件在 MySQL 语句分析层直接转换,这时候就得用到摘要函数 statement_digest_text。

假设:表 p1 字段 id 值全部为正。

delete from p1 where id = 1000;

要改写为

delete from p1 where id = -1;

利用函数 statement_digest_text 来定制这条 SQL 的重写规则。

mysql> INSERT INTO query_rewrite.rewrite_rules (pattern, replacement,pattern_database)
-> VALUES(
-> statement_digest_text('delete from p1 where id = 1000') ,
-> statement_digest_text('delete from p1 where id = -1'),
-> 'ytt'
-> );
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> CALL query_rewrite.flush_rewrite_rules();
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)
mysql> select * from query_rewrite.rewrite_rules\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
id: 1
pattern: DELETE FROM `p1` WHERE `id` = ?
pattern_database: ytt
replacement: DELETE FROM `p1` WHERE `id` = - ?
enabled: YES
message: NULL
pattern_digest: a09b20197de495d603324d6ed617cb5d05fa0e3011bea8e9db7d2939df22940a
normalized_pattern: delete from `ytt`.`p1` where (`id` = ?)
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

语句被查询重写后的效果:

mysql> delete from p1 where id = 20000;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
mysql> show warnings\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
Level: Note
Code: 1105
Message: Query 'delete from p1 where id = 20000' rewritten to 'DELETE FROM `p1` WHERE `id` = - 20000' by a query rewrite plugin
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
mysql> select count(*) from p1;
+----------+
| count(*) |
+----------+
|  9000001 |
+----------+
1 row in set (1.59 sec)
```

总结

MySQL 8.0 新增的语句摘要函数可以很方便的分析 SQL 语句执行的各个方面,比以前分析类似的场景要简单的多。

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