# Binary Search functions in C++ STL (binary_search, lower_bound and upper_bound)

Binary search is an important component in competitive programming or any algorithmic competition, having knowledge of shorthand functions reduces the time to code them. This searching only works when container is sorted
. Related functions are discussed below.

1.binary_search(start_ptr, end_ptr, num): This function returns boolean true if the element is present
in the container, else returns false.

```// C++ code to demonstrate the working of binary_search()

#include
using namespace std;

int main()
{
// initializing vector of integers
vector arr = {10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35};

// using binary_search to check if 15 exists
if (binary_search(arr.begin(), arr.end(), 15))
cout << "15 exists in vector";
else
cout << "15 does not exist";

cout << endl;

// using binary_search to check if 23 exists
if (binary_search(arr.begin(), arr.end(), 23))
cout << "23 exists in vector";
else
cout << "23 does not exist";

cout << endl;
}```

Output:

```15 exists in vector
23 does not exist```

2. lower_bound(start_ptr, end_ptr, num): Returns pointer to “ position of num
” if container contains 1
occurrence of num. Returns pointer to “ first position of num
” if container contains multiple occurrence
of num. Returns pointer to “ position of next higher number than num
” if container does not contain occurrence
of num. Subtracting the pointer to 1st position i.e “ vect.begin()
” returns the actual index.

```// C++ code to demonstrate the working of lower_bound()
#include
using namespace std;

int main()
{
// initializing vector of integers
// for single occurrence
vector arr1 = {10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35};

// initializing vector of integers
// for multiple occurrences
vector arr2 = {10, 15, 20, 20, 25, 30, 35};

// initializing vector of integers
// for no occurrence
vector arr3 = {10, 15, 25, 30, 35};

// using lower_bound() to check if 20 exists
// single occurrence
// prints 2
cout << "The position of 20 using lower_bound "
" (in single occurrence case) : ";
cout << lower_bound(arr1.begin(), arr1.end(), 20)
- arr1.begin();

cout << endl;

// using lower_bound() to check if 20 exists
// multiple occurrence
// prints 2
cout << "The position of 20 using lower_bound "
"(in multiple occurrence case) : ";
cout << lower_bound(arr2.begin(), arr2.end(), 20)
- arr2.begin();

cout << endl;

// using lower_bound() to check if 20 exists
// no occurrence
// prints 2 ( index of next higher)
cout << "The position of 20 using lower_bound "
"(in no occurrence case) : ";
cout << lower_bound(arr3.begin(), arr3.end(), 20)
- arr3.begin();

cout << endl;
}```

Output:

```The position of 20 using lower_bound (in single occurrence case) : 2
The position of 20 using lower_bound (in multiple occurrence case) : 2
The position of 20 using lower_bound (in no occurrence case) : 2```

3. upper_bound(start_ptr, end_ptr, num): Returns pointer to “ position of next higher number than num
” if container contains 1
occurrence of num. Returns pointer to “ first position of next higher number than last occurrence of num
” if container contains multiple occurrence
of num. Returns pointer to “ position of next higher number than num
” if container does not contain occurrence
of num. Subtracting the pointer to 1st position i.e “ vect.begin()
” returns the actual index.

```// C++ code to demonstrate the working of upper_bound()
#include
using namespace std;

int main()
{
// initializing vector of integers
// for single occurrence
vector arr1 = {10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35};

// initializing vector of integers
// for multiple occurrences
vector arr2 = {10, 15, 20, 20, 25, 30, 35};

// initializing vector of integers
// for no occurrence
vector arr3 = {10, 15, 25, 30, 35};

// using lower_bound() to check if 20 exists
// single occurrence
// prints 3
cout << "The position of 20 using upper_bound"
" (in single occurrence case) : ";
cout << upper_bound(arr1.begin(), arr1.end(), 20)
- arr1.begin();

cout << endl;

// using lower_bound() to check if 20 exists
// multiple occurrence
// prints 4
cout << "The position of 20 using upper_bound "
"(in multiple occurrence case) : ";
cout << upper_bound(arr2.begin(), arr2.end(), 20)
- arr2.begin();

cout << endl;

// using lower_bound() to check if 20 exists
// no occurrence
// prints 2 ( index of next higher)
cout << "The position of 20 using upper_bound"
" (in no occurrence case) : ";
cout << upper_bound(arr3.begin(), arr3.end(), 20)
- arr3.begin();

cout << endl;
}```

Output:

```The position of 20 using upper_bound (in single occurrence case) : 3
The position of 20 using upper_bound (in multiple occurrence case) : 4
The position of 20 using upper_bound (in no occurrence case) : 2```

. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute.geeksforgeeks.org
or mail your article to [email protected] See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks.